By the way, I already think I look better than the day I graduated! It is not enough if you have a bulky bushy beard which is unruly and wild. When you are done, close the lid of the cup and place it in the rack the technician specifies. Foreign language semester II. There are two main hormones associated with appetite and satiety feeling satisfied. MFP has a huge food database that is continuously growing daily.
Once dyslipidemia becomes a severe problem, an individual's abdominal cavity would generate elevated free fatty acid flux to the liver.
The effect of abdominal adiposity occurs not just in those who are obese, but also affects people who are non-obese and it also contributes to insulin sensitivity. Recent validation has concluded that total and regional body volume estimates correlate positively and significantly with biomarkers of cardiovascular risk and BVI calculations correlate significantly with all biomarkers of cardio-vascular risk.
There are numerous theories as to the exact cause and mechanism in Type 2 Diabetes. Central obesity is known to predispose individuals for insulin resistance. Abdominal fat is especially active hormonally, secreting a group of hormones called adipokines that may possibly impair glucose tolerance. But adiponectin which is found in lower concentration in obese and diabetic individuals has shown to be beneficial and protective in Type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Developing asthma due to abdominal obesity is also a main concern. As a result of breathing at low lung volume, the muscles are tighter and the airway is narrower. It is commonly seen that people who are obese breathe quickly and often, while inhaling small volumes of air.
Based on studies, it is evident that obesity has a strong association with vascular and metabolic disease which could potentially be linked to Alzheimer's disease.
Recent studies have also shown an association between mid-life obesity and dementia, but the relationship between later life obesity and dementia is less clear.
Based on logistic regression analyses, it was found that obesity was associated with an almost fold increase risk of Alzheimer's disease. The currently prevalent belief is that the immediate cause of obesity is net energy imbalance—the organism consumes more usable calories than it expends, wastes, or discards through elimination.
Some studies indicate that visceral adiposity, together with lipid dysregulation and decreased insulin sensitivity ,  is related to the excessive consumption of fructose. Quality protein uptake is defined as the ratio of essential amino acids to daily dietary protein. Visceral fat cells will release their metabolic by-products in the portal circulation, where the blood leads straight to the liver.
Thus, the excess of triglycerides and fatty acids created by the visceral fat cells will go into the liver and accumulate there. In the liver, most of it will be stored as fat. This concept is known as 'lipotoxicity'. Hypercortisolism, such as in Cushing's syndrome , also leads to central obesity. Many prescription drugs, such as dexamethasone and other steroids, can also have side effects resulting in central obesity,  especially in the presence of elevated insulin levels.
The prevalence of abdominal obesity is increasing in western populations, possibly due to a combination of low physical activity and high-calorie diets, and also in developing countries, where it is associated with the urbanization of populations. It is recommended to use both standards. BMI will illustrate the best estimate of your total body fatness, while waist measurement gives an estimate of visceral fat and risk of obesity-related disease.
A study has shown that alcohol consumption is directly associated with waist circumference and with a higher risk of abdominal obesity in men, but not in women. Excluding energy under-reporters slightly attenuated these associations. After controlling for energy under-reporting, it was observed that increasing alcohol consumption significantly increased the risk of exceeding recommended energy intakes in male participants — but not in the small number of female participants 2. Further study is needed to determine whether a significant relationship between alcohol consumption and abdominal obesity exists among women who consume higher amounts of alcohol.
In those with a BMI under 35, intra-abdominal body fat is related to negative health outcomes independent of total body fat. BMI and waist measurements are well recognized ways to characterize obesity. However, waist measurements are not as accurate as BMI measurements. For this reason, it is recommended to use both methods of measurements.
While central obesity can be obvious just by looking at the naked body see the picture , the severity of central obesity is determined by taking waist and hip measurements. A differential diagnosis includes distinguishing central obesity from ascites and intestinal bloating.
In the cohort of 15, people participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey NHANES III , waist circumference explained obesity-related health risk better than the body mass index or BMI when metabolic syndrome was taken as an outcome measure and this difference was statistically significant.
In other words, excessive waist circumference appears to be more of a risk factor for metabolic syndrome than BMI. The increased amount of fat in this region relates to the higher levels of plasma lipid and lipoproteins as per studies mentioned by Eric Poehlman review.
This parameter has been used in the study of metabolic syndrome   and cardiovascular disease. When comparing the body fat of men and women it is seen that men have close to twice the visceral fat as that of pre-menopausal women.
Central obesity is positively associated with coronary heart disease risk in women and men. It has been hypothesized that the sex differences in fat distribution may explain the sex difference in coronary heart disease risk. There are sex-dependent differences in regional fat distribution.
In women, estrogen is believed to cause fat to be stored in the buttocks , thighs , and hips. Males are more susceptible to upper-body fat accumulation, most likely in the belly, due to sex hormone differences.
Even with the differences, at any given level of central obesity measured as waist circumference or waist to hip ratio, coronary artery disease rates are identical in men and women. A permanent routine of exercise, eating healthily, and, during periods of being overweight, consuming the same number or fewer calories than used will prevent and help fight obesity. Adjunctive therapies which may be prescribed by a physician are orlistat or sibutramine , although the latter has been associated with increased cardiovascular events and strokes and has been withdrawn from the market in the United States ,  the UK ,  the EU ,  Australia ,  Canada ,  Hong Kong ,  Thailand ,  Egypt and Mexico.
A study published in the International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism ,  suggests that combining cardiovascular aerobic exercise with resistance training is more effective than cardiovascular training alone in getting rid of abdominal fat. An additional benefit to exercising is that it reduces stress and insulin levels, which reduce the presence of cortisol , a hormone that leads to more belly fat deposits.
Self-motivation by understanding the risks associated with abdominal obesity is widely regarded as being far more important than worries about cosmetics. In addition, understanding the health issues linked with abdominal obesity can help in the self-motivation process of losing the abdominal fat. As mentioned above, abdominal fat is linked with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. Specifically it's the deepest layer of belly fat the fat you cannot see or grab that poses health risks, as these "visceral" fat cells produce hormones that can affect health e.
The risk increases considering the fact that they are located in the proximity or in between organs in the abdominal cavity. For example, fat next to the liver drains into it, causing a fatty liver , which is a risk factor for insulin resistance, setting the stage for Type 2 diabetes.
In the presence of diabetes mellitus type 2 , the physician might instead prescribe metformin and thiazolidinediones rosiglitazone or pioglitazone as antidiabetic drugs rather than sulfonylurea derivatives. Thiazolidinediones may cause slight weight gain but decrease "pathologic" abdominal fat visceral fat , and therefore may be prescribed for diabetics with central obesity.
Low-fat diets may not be an effective long-term intervention for obesity: The conclusion was that mean weight decreased significantly in the intervention group from baseline to year 1 by 2. This difference from baseline between control and intervention groups diminished over time, but a significant difference in weight was maintained through year 9, the end of the study. There is a common misconception that spot exercise that is, exercising a specific muscle or location of the body most effectively burns fat at the desired location, but this is not the case.
Spot exercise is beneficial for building specific muscles, but it has little effect, if any, on fat in that area of the body, or on the body's distribution of body fat. The same logic applies to sit-ups and belly fat. Sit-ups , crunches and other abdominal exercises are useful in building the abdominal muscles , but they have little effect, if any, on the adipose tissue located there.
Several colloquial terms used to refer to central obesity, and to people who have it, refer to beer drinking. However, there is little scientific evidence that beer drinkers are more prone to central obesity, despite its being known colloquially as "beer belly", "beer gut", or "beer pot". One of the few studies conducted on the subject did not find that beer drinkers are more prone to central obesity than nondrinkers or drinkers of wine or spirits.
These symptoms can suggest the appearance of central obesity. Deposits of excess fat at the sides of one's waistline are commonly referred to as "love handles". Researchers in Copenhagen examined the relationship between waist circumferences and costs among 31, subjects aged 50—64 years of age with different waist circumferences. Their study showed that an increase in just an additional centimetre above normal waistline caused a 1. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Central obesity Synonyms beer belly, beer gut, pot belly, spare tyre, bread box A centrally obese male.
The body mass index is Specialty Endocrinology Abdominal obesity , also known as central obesity , occurs when excessive abdominal fat around the stomach and abdomen has built up to the extent that it is likely to have a negative impact on health. Current Opinion in Lipidology. Retrieved on April 9, Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. The Metabolic Multi-risk Factor". Definition of metabolic syndrome: European Journal of Epidemiology.
Two subspecies of giant panda have been recognized on the basis of distinct cranial measurements, color patterns, and population genetics. A detailed study of the giant panda's genetic history from  confirms that the separation of the Qinlin population occurred about , years ago, and reveals that the non-Qinlin population further diverged into two groups, named the Minshan and the Qionglai - Daxiangling - Xiaoxiangling - Liangshan group respectively, about 2, years ago.
The giant panda has luxuriant black-and-white fur. Adults measure around 1. The giant panda has a body shape typical of bears. It has black fur on its ears, eye patches, muzzle, legs, arms and shoulders. The rest of the animal's coat is white. Although scientists do not know why these unusual bears are black and white, speculation suggests that the bold coloring provides effective camouflage in their shade-dappled snowy and rocky habitat.
It has evolved from previous ancestors to exhibit larger molars with increased complexity and expanded temporal fossa. The giant panda's paw has a "thumb" and five fingers ; the "thumb" — actually a modified sesamoid bone — helps it to hold bamboo while eating.
The longest belongs to the sloth bear. The giant panda typically lives around 20 years in the wild and up to 30 years in captivity. A seven-year-old female named Jin Yi died in in a zoo in Zhengzhou , China, after showing symptoms of gastroenteritis and respiratory disease.
It was found that the cause of death was toxoplasmosis , a disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii and infecting most warm-blooded animals, including humans. The giant panda genome was sequenced in using Illumina dye sequencing. Despite its taxonomic classification as a carnivoran , the giant panda's diet is primarily herbivorous , consisting almost exclusively of bamboo. Its ability to digest cellulose is ascribed to the microbes in its gut. Ingestion of such a large quantity of material is possible because of the rapid passage of large amounts of indigestible plant material through the short, straight digestive tract.
Given this voluminous diet, the giant panda defecates up to 40 times a day. The giant panda tends to limit its social interactions and avoids steeply sloping terrain to limit its energy expenditures. Two of the panda's most distinctive features, its large size and round face, are adaptations to its bamboo diet. Anthropologist Russell Ciochon observed: This lower metabolic rate and a more sedentary lifestyle allows the giant panda to subsist on nutrient poor resources such as bamboo.
The morphological characteristics of extinct relatives of the giant panda suggest that while the ancient giant panda was omnivorous 7 million years ago mya , it only became herbivorous some Pandas eat any of 25 bamboo species in the wild, such as Fargesia dracocephala  and Fargesia rufa. Bamboo leaves contain the highest protein levels; stems have less. Because of the synchronous flowering, death, and regeneration of all bamboo within a species, the giant panda must have at least two different species available in its range to avoid starvation.
While primarily herbivorous, the giant panda still retains decidedly ursine teeth, and will eat meat, fish, and eggs when available. In captivity, zoos typically maintain the giant panda's bamboo diet, though some will provide specially formulated biscuits or other dietary supplements.
Pandas will travel between different habitats if they need to, so they can get the nutrients that they need and to balance their diet for reproduction. They took note of their foraging and mating habits, and analysed samples of their food and feces. The pandas would move from the valleys into the Qinling Mountains and would only return to the valleys in autumn. During the summer months bamboo shoots rich in protein are only available at higher altitudes which causes low calcium rates in the pandas and during breeding season the pandas would trek back down to eat bamboo leaves rich in calcium.
Although adult giant pandas have few natural predators other than humans, young cubs are vulnerable to attacks by snow leopards , yellow-throated martens ,  eagles, feral dogs, and the Asian black bear. The giant panda is a terrestrial animal and primarily spends its life roaming and feeding in the bamboo forests of the Qinling Mountains and in the hilly province of Sichuan.
Social encounters occur primarily during the brief breeding season in which pandas in proximity to one another will gather. Pandas were thought to fall into the crepuscular category, those who are active twice a day, at dawn and dusk; however, Jindong Zhang found that pandas may belong to a category all of their own, with activity peaks in the morning, afternoon and midnight.
Due to their sheer size, pandas do not need to fear predators like other herbivores. They can therefore be active at any time of the day.
Pandas communicate through vocalization and scent marking such as clawing trees or spraying urine. For this reason, pandas do not hibernate , which is similar to other subtropical mammals, and will instead move to elevations with warmer temperatures.
Though the panda is often assumed to be docile, it has been known to attack humans, presumably out of irritation rather than aggression. Initially, the primary method of breeding giant pandas in captivity was by artificial insemination , as they seemed to lose their interest in mating once they were captured.
The normal reproductive rate is considered to be one young every two years. Giant pandas reach sexual maturity between the ages of four and eight, and may be reproductive until age Copulation time is short, ranging from 30 seconds to five minutes, but the male may mount her repeatedly to ensure successful fertilization.
The gestation period ranges from 95 to days. Giant pandas give birth to twins in about half of pregnancies. The mother will select the stronger of the cubs, and the weaker will die.
The mother is thought to be unable to produce enough milk for two cubs, since she does not store fat. For three to four hours, the mother may leave the den to feed, which leaves the cub defenseless. One to two weeks after birth, the cub's skin turns gray where its hair will eventually become black. A slight pink color may appear on cub's fur, as a result of a chemical reaction between the fur and its mother's saliva.
A month after birth, the color pattern of the cub's fur is fully developed. Its fur is very soft and coarsens with age. The cub begins to crawl at 75 to 80 days;  mothers play with their cubs by rolling and wrestling with them.
The cubs can eat small quantities of bamboo after six months,  though mother's milk remains the primary food source for most of the first year. The interval between births in the wild is generally two years. In July , Chinese scientists confirmed the birth of the first cub to be successfully conceived through artificial insemination using frozen sperm. Attempts have also been made to reproduce giant pandas by interspecific pregnancy by implanting cloned panda embryos into the uterus of an animal of another species.
This has resulted in panda fetuses, but no live births. In the past, pandas were thought to be rare and noble creatures — the Empress Dowager Bo was buried with a panda skull in her vault. The grandson of Emperor Taizong of Tang is said to have given Japan two pandas and a sheet of panda skin as a sign of goodwill.
Unlike many other animals in Ancient China , pandas were rarely thought to have medical uses. The few known uses include the Sichuan tribal peoples' use of panda urine to melt accidentally swallowed needles, and the use of panda pelts to control menses as described in the Qin Dynasty encyclopedia Erya.
Zouyu is a legendary "righteous" animal, which, similarly to a qilin , only appears during the rule of a benevolent and sincere monarch. It is said to be fierce as a tiger , but gentle and strictly vegetarian, and described in some books as a white tiger with black spots.
Puzzled about the real zoological identity of the creature captured during the Yongle era, J. Duyvendak exclaims, "Can it possibly have been a Pandah? The comparative obscurity of the giant panda throughout most of China's history is illustrated by the fact that, despite there being a number of depictions of bears in Chinese art starting from its most ancient times, and the bamboo being one of the favorite subjects for Chinese painters, there are no known preth-century artistic representations of giant pandas.
The West first learned of the giant panda on 11 March , when the French missionary Armand David  received a skin from a hunter. The first Westerner known to have seen a living giant panda is the German zoologist Hugo Weigold , who purchased a cub in Kermit and Theodore Roosevelt, Jr.
In , Ruth Harkness became the first Westerner to bring back a live giant panda, a cub named Su Lin  which went to live at the Brookfield Zoo in Chicago. In , five giant pandas were sent to London. Gifts of giant pandas to American and Japanese zoos formed an important part of the diplomacy of the People's Republic of China PRC in the s, as it marked some of the first cultural exchanges between the PRC and the West.
This practice has been termed "panda diplomacy". By , however, pandas were no longer given as gifts. Since , because of a WWF lawsuit , the United States Fish and Wildlife Service only allows a US zoo to import a panda if the zoo can ensure the PRC will channel more than half of its loan fee into conservation efforts for the giant panda and its habitat.
The issue became embroiled in cross-Strait relations — both over the underlying symbolism, and over technical issues such as whether the transfer would be considered "domestic" or "international", or whether any true conservation purpose would be served by the exchange. However, when Ma Ying-jeou assumed the presidency in , the offer was accepted, and the pandas arrived in December of that year.
Microbes in panda waste are being investigated for their use in creating biofuels from bamboo and other plant materials. The giant panda is a vulnerable species , threatened by continued habitat loss and habitat fragmentation ,  and by a very low birthrate, both in the wild and in captivity. The giant panda has been a target of poaching by locals since ancient times and by foreigners since it was introduced to the West.
Starting in the s, foreigners were unable to poach giant pandas in China because of the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Chinese Civil War , but pandas remained a source of soft furs for the locals. The population boom in China after created stress on the pandas' habitat, and the subsequent famines led to the increased hunting of wildlife, including pandas. During the Cultural Revolution , all studies and conservation activities on the pandas were stopped. After the Chinese economic reform , demand for panda skins from Hong Kong and Japan led to illegal poaching for the black market , acts generally ignored by the local officials at the time.
Though the Wolong National Nature Reserve was set up by the PRC government in to save the declining panda population, few advances in the conservation of pandas were made, owing to inexperience and insufficient knowledge of ecology. Many believed the best way to save the pandas was to cage them. As a result, pandas were caged at any sign of decline, and suffered from terrible conditions. Because of pollution and destruction of their natural habitat, along with segregation caused by caging, reproduction of wild pandas was severely limited.
In the s, however, several laws including gun control and the removal of resident humans from the reserves helped their chances of survival. With these renewed efforts and improved conservation methods, wild pandas have started to increase in numbers in some areas, though they still are classified as a rare species. In , scientists reported that the number of pandas living in the wild may have been underestimated at about 1, Previous population surveys had used conventional methods to estimate the size of the wild panda population, but using a new method that analyzes DNA from panda droppings , scientists believe the wild population may be as large as 3, Furthermore, in response to this reclassification, the State Forestry Administration of China announced that they would not accordingly lower the conservation level for panda, and would instead reinforce the conservation efforts.
The giant panda is among the world's most adored and protected rare animals, and is one of the few in the world whose natural inhabitant status was able to gain a UNESCO World Heritage Site designation. The Sichuan Giant Panda Sanctuaries , located in the southwest province of Sichuan and covering seven natural reserves, were inscribed onto the World Heritage List in Not all conservationists agree that the money spent on conserving pandas is well spent.
Chris Packham has argued that the breeding of pandas in captivity is "pointless" because "there is not enough habitat left to sustain them".
In , Earthwatch Institute , a global nonprofit that teams volunteers with scientists to conduct important environmental research, launched a program called "On the Trail of Giant Panda". This program, based in the Wolong National Nature Reserve, allows volunteers to work up close with pandas cared for in captivity, and help them adapt to life in the wild, so that they may breed, and live longer and healthier lives.
Pandas have been kept in zoos as early as the Western Han Dynasty in China, where the writer Sima Xiangru noted that the panda was the most treasured animal in the emperor's garden of exotic animals in the capital Chang'an present Xi'an.
Not until the s were pandas again recorded to have been exhibited in China's zoos. Chi Chi at the London Zoo became very popular. This influenced the World Wildlife Fund to use a panda as its symbol.
A New York Times article  outlined the economics of keeping pandas, which costs five times more than that of the next most expensive animal, an elephant. San Diego's contract with China was to expire in , but got a five-year extension at about half of the previous yearly cost.
Cryptozoologists use Giant Pandas as an example of an animal recently discovered by science. Skeptical cryptozoologist Joe Nickell , notes that since Giant Pandas were known to local people, they qualify as cryptids. Also, fossil evidence shows that pandas were once widespread, including the two million year old skull of Ailuropoda microta . From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see Panda disambiguation , Panda Bear musician , and Giant panda disambiguation. David , . Giant pandas around the world. List of giant pandas. Retrieved 5 September Bulletin des Nouvelles Archives du Muséum. Animals of the rain forest illustrated ed. University of California Press. Archived from the original on 7 January Retrieved 8 August Retrieved 7 November Archived from the original on 4 July Retrieved 22 July Archived from the original on 2 January Retrieved 14 February Retrieved 10 April Retrieved 9 August