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Carbohydrate
The oxygen atom may take a position either above or below the plane of the ring. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Carbohydrates. Glycogen , Cellulose , Hemicellulose , Pectins , Hydrocolloids. See the full list of chemistry topics at the site map! Anti-gravity Cloak of invisibility Digital scent technology Force field Plasma window Immersive virtual reality Magnetic refrigeration Phased-array optics. In graph theory , the term fullerene refers to any 3- regular , planar graph with all faces of size 5 or 6 including the external face. They occur in organisms in higher proportions than they do in the environment because organisms capture them, concentrating and combining them in various ways in their cells, and release them during metabolism and death.

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Results of such calculations can be compared with experimental results. Researchers have been able to increase the reactivity of fullerenes by attaching active groups to their surfaces.

Buckminsterfullerene does not exhibit " superaromaticity ": A spherical fullerene of n carbon atoms has n pi-bonding electrons, free to delocalize.

These should try to delocalize over the whole molecule. This has been shown to be the case using quantum chemical modelling, which showed the existence of strong diamagnetic sphere currents in the cation. As a result, C 60 in water tends to pick up two more electrons and become an anion. The n C 60 described below may be the result of C 60 trying to form a loose metallic bond. Fullerenes are stable, but not totally unreactive. The sp 2 -hybridized carbon atoms, which are at their energy minimum in planar graphite , must be bent to form the closed sphere or tube, which produces angle strain.

The characteristic reaction of fullerenes is electrophilic addition at 6,6-double bonds, which reduces angle strain by changing sp 2 -hybridized carbons into sp 3 -hybridized ones. This decrease in bond angles allows for the bonds to bend less when closing the sphere or tube, and thus, the molecule becomes more stable.

Other atoms can be trapped inside fullerenes to form inclusion compounds known as endohedral fullerenes. An unusual example is the egg-shaped fullerene Tb 3 N C 84 , which violates the isolated pentagon rule. Fullerenes are sparingly soluble in many solvents. Common solvents for the fullerenes include aromatics, such as toluene , and others like carbon disulfide.

Solutions of pure buckminsterfullerene have a deep purple color. Solutions of C 70 are a reddish brown. The higher fullerenes C 76 to C 84 have a variety of colors. C 76 has two optical forms, while other higher fullerenes have several structural isomers. Fullerenes are the only known allotrope of carbon that can be dissolved in common solvents at room temperature.

Some fullerene structures are not soluble because they have a small band gap between the ground and excited states. These include the small fullerenes C 28 , [46] C 36 and C The C 72 structure is also in this class, but the endohedral version with a trapped lanthanide -group atom is soluble due to the interaction of the metal atom and the electronic states of the fullerene. Researchers had originally been puzzled by C 72 being absent in fullerene plasma-generated soot extract, but found in endohedral samples.

Small band gap fullerenes are highly reactive and bind to other fullerenes or to soot particles. Solvents that are able to dissolve buckminsterfullerene C 60 and C 70 are listed at left in order from highest solubility.

The solubility value given is the approximate saturated concentration. Solubility of C 60 in some solvents shows unusual behaviour due to existence of solvate phases analogues of crystallohydrates. For example, solubility of C 60 in benzene solution shows maximum at about K. Out of solution, this structure decomposes into usual face-centered cubic fcc C 60 in few minutes' time. At temperatures above solubility maximum the solvate is not stable even when immersed in saturated solution and melts with formation of fcc C Crystallization at temperatures above the solubility maximum results in formation of pure fcc C Millimeter-sized crystals of C 60 and C 70 can be grown from solution both for solvates and for pure fullerenes.

In , researchers from the University of Vienna demonstrated that wave-particle duality applied to molecules such as fullerene. C 76 , C 78 , C 80 , and C 84 are inherently chiral because they are D 2 -symmetric, and have been successfully resolved.

Research efforts are ongoing to develop specific sensors for their enantiomers. Two theories have been proposed to describe the molecular mechanisms that make fullerenes. In researchers discovered that asymmetrical fullerenes formed from larger structures settle into stable fullerenes.

The synthesized substance was a particular metallofullerene consisting of 84 carbon atoms with two additional carbon atoms and two yttrium atoms inside the cage. The process produced approximately micrograms.

However, they found that the asymmetrical molecule could theoretically collapse to form nearly every known fullerene and metallofullerene. Minor perturbations involving the breaking of a few molecular bonds cause the cage to become highly symmetrical and stable. This insight supports the theory that fullerenes can be formed from graphene when the appropriate molecular bonds are severed. Fullerene production processes comprise the following five subprocesses: The two synthesis methods used in practice are the arc method, and the combustion method.

The latter, discovered at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology , is preferred for large scale industrial production. Fullerenes have been extensively used for several biomedical applications including the design of high-performance MRI contrast agents, X-ray imaging contrast agents, photodynamic therapy and drug and gene delivery, summarized in several comprehensive reviews.

While past cancer research has involved radiation therapy, photodynamic therapy is important to study because breakthroughs in treatments for tumor cells will give more options to patients with different conditions. Recent experiments using HeLa cells in cancer research involves the development of new photosensitizers with increased ability to be absorbed by cancer cells and still trigger cell death.

It is also important that a new photosensitizer does not stay in the body for a long time to prevent unwanted cell damage.

Fullerenes can be made to be absorbed by HeLa cells. The C 60 derivatives can be delivered to the cells by using the functional groups L-phenylalanine , folic acid , and L-arginine among others. Cancer cells take up these molecules at an increased rate because of an upregulation of transporters in the cancer cell, in this case amino acid transporters will bring in the L-arginine and L-phenylalanine functional groups of the fullerenes. Once absorbed by the cells, the C 60 derivatives would react to light radiation by turning molecular oxygen into reactive oxygen which triggers apoptosis in the HeLa cells and other cancer cells that can absorb the fullerene molecule.

This research shows that a reactive substance can target cancer cells and then be triggered by light radiation, minimizing damage to surrounding tissues while undergoing treatment. When absorbed by cancer cells and exposed to light radiation, the reaction that creates reactive oxygen damages the DNA, proteins, and lipids that make up the cancer cell.

This cellular damage forces the cancerous cell to go through apoptosis, which can lead to the reduction in size of a tumor. Once the light radiation treatment is finished the fullerene will reabsorb the free radicals to prevent damage of other tissues. As this research continues, the treatment may penetrate deeper into the body and be absorbed by cancer cells more effectively.

A comprehensive and recent review on fullerene toxicity is given by Lalwani et al. The toxicity of these carbon nanoparticles is not only dose and time-dependent, but also depends on a number of other factors such as: The authors therefore recommend that pharmacology of every new fullerene- or metallofullerene-based complex must be assessed individually as a different compound.

Examples of fullerenes in popular culture are numerous. Fullerenes appeared in fiction well before scientists took serious interest in them. In a humorously speculative column for New Scientist , David Jones suggested that it may be possible to create giant hollow carbon molecules by distorting a plane hexagonal net by the addition of impurity atoms.

On 4 September , Google used an interactively rotatable fullerene [66] C 60 as the second 'o' in their logo to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the discovery of the fullerenes. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This rotating model of a carbon nanotube shows its 3D structure. If you only had one atom of gold in your hand, it would have the same properties as every other gold atom in that bar.

But what if you only had one electron from a gold atom? That electron would not have the properties of gold anymore. It would just be an electron doing electron stuff. The atom is the smallest unit that has the properties of an element.

We can teach you about the general structure of an atom, but you need to study atoms from different elements to really learn how atoms work. Common Elements Let's work with the alphabet idea again. If you read a book, you will find words on each page. Letters make up those words. In English, we only have twenty-six letters, but we can make thousands of words.

In chemistry , you are working with almost elements. When you combine them, you can make millions of different molecules. Molecules are groups of atoms in the same way that words are groups of letters.

An "A" will always be an "A" no matter what word it is in. A sodium Na atom will always be a sodium atom no matter what molecule it is in. Saxitoxins are the exception, as they also occur widely in the marine environment and many methods have been developed for their detection in shellfish. Analytical methods such as enzyme—linked immunosorbent assays ELISA already exist to analyze cyanobacterial hepatotoxins and saxitoxins, and the protein phosphatase inhibition assay PPIA can be used for microcystins.

These two methods are sensitive, rapid, and suitable for large-scale screening but are predisposed to false positives and unable to differentiate between toxin variants. However, relatively little work has been done on methods for detection of other toxins, including anatoxins and cylindrospermopsins. The following table describes the methods available for cyanotoxin measurement in freshwater. Geological Survey and Ann St. Available for this toxin 0: Unavailable for this toxin.

FR, Foundation for Water Research. In the case of public waterways and drinking water sources, many state environmental agencies operate monitoring, sampling, and testing programs. Several of these states perform the necessary detection analysis on samples taken from potential HABs in state-run laboratories; however, many states with HAB programs, in addition to municipalities, private utilities, and other riparian stakeholders of freshwater systems send their samples to commercial and public laboratories.

For a non-comprehensive list of laboratories that accept samples for cyanobacteria and cyanotoxin analysis, please visit the State Resources page on this website.

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