Meeting Groucho Marx
Heart disease runs in my family. Osteoarthritis and obesity are closely linked. Forget the bed, check under the stage. In the US it is indicated as a treatment for complications of leptin deficiency, and for the diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia associated with congenital or acquired generalized lipodystrophy. Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology.
While leptin is associated with body fat mass, however, the size of individual fat cells, and the act of overeating, it is interesting that it is not affected by exercise for comparison, IL-6 is released in response to muscular contractions.
Thus, it is speculated that leptin responds specifically to adipose-derived inflammation. Taken as such, increases in leptin levels in response to caloric intake function as an acute pro-inflammatory response mechanism to prevent excessive cellular stress induced by overeating. When high caloric intake overtaxes the ability of fat cells to grow larger or increase in number in step with caloric intake, the ensuing stress response leads to inflammation at the cellular level and ectopic fat storage, i.
The insulin increase in response to the caloric load provokes a dose-dependent rise in leptin, an effect potentiated by high cortisol levels. This response may then protect against the harmful process of ectopic fat storage, which perhaps explains the connection between chronically elevated leptin levels and ectopic fat storage in obese individuals.
Although leptin reduces appetite as a circulating signal, obese individuals generally exhibit a higher circulating concentration of leptin than normal weight individuals due to their higher percentage body fat. A number of explanations have been proposed to explain this. An important contributor to leptin resistance is changes to leptin receptor signalling, particularly in the arcuate nucleus , however, deficiency of, or major changes to, the leptin receptor itself are not thought to be a major cause.
Other explanations suggested include changes to the way leptin crosses the blood brain barrier BBB or alterations occurring during development. Studies on leptin cerebrospinal fluid CSF levels provide evidence for the reduction in leptin crossing the BBB and reaching obesity-relevant targets, such as the hypothalamus, in obese people. Since the amount and quality of leptin receptors in the hypothalamus appears to be normal in the majority of obese humans as judged from leptin-mRNA studies ,  it is likely that the leptin resistance in these individuals is due to a post leptin-receptor deficit, similar to the post-insulin receptor defect seen in type 2 diabetes.
When leptin binds with the leptin receptor, it activates a number of pathways. Mice with a mutation in the leptin receptor gene that prevents the activation of STAT3 are obese and exhibit hyperphagia.
The PI3K pathway may also be involved in leptin resistance, as has been demonstrated in mice by artificial blocking of PI3K signalling. The PI3K pathway also is activated by the insulin receptor and is therefore an important area where leptin and insulin act together as part of energy homeostasis. The consumption of a high fructose diet from birth has been associated with a reduction in leptin levels and reduced expression of leptin receptor mRNA in rats.
Long-term consumption of fructose in rats has been shown to increase levels of triglycerides and trigger leptin and insulin resistance,   however, another study found that leptin resistance only developed in the presence of both high fructose and high fat levels in the diet.
A third study found that high fructose levels reversed leptin resistance in rats given a high fat diet. The contradictory results mean that it is uncertain whether leptin resistance is caused by high levels of carbohydrates or fats, or if an increase of both, is needed. Leptin is known to interact with amylin , a hormone involved in gastric emptying and creating a feeling of fullness. When both leptin and amylin were given to obese, leptin-resistant rats, sustained weight loss was seen.
Due to its apparent ability to reverse leptin resistance, amylin has been suggested as possible therapy for obesity. It has been suggested that the main role of leptin is to act as a starvation signal when levels are low, to help maintain fat stores for survival during times of starvation, rather than a satiety signal to prevent overeating.
Leptin levels signal when an animal has enough stored energy to spend it in pursuits besides acquiring food. Dieters who lose weight, particularly those with an overabundance of fat cells, experience a drop in levels of circulating leptin. This drop causes reversible decreases in thyroid activity, sympathetic tone, and energy expenditure in skeletal muscle, and increases in muscle efficiency and parasympathetic tone.
A decline in levels of circulating leptin also changes brain activity in areas involved in the regulatory, emotional, and cognitive control of appetite that are reversed by administration of leptin. Osteoarthritis and obesity are closely linked. Obesity is one of the most important preventable factors for the development of osteoarthritis. Originally, the relationship between osteoarthritis and obesity was considered to be exclusively biomechanically based, according to which the excess weight caused the joint to become worn down more quickly.
However, today we recognise that there is also a metabolic component which explains why obesity is a risk factor for osteoarthritis, not only for weight-bearing joints for example, the knees , but also for joints that do not bear weight for example, the hands. Thus, the deregulated production of adipokines and inflammatory mediators, hyperlipidaemia, and the increase of systemic oxidative stress are conditions frequently associated with obesity which can favour joint degeneration.
Furthermore, many regulation factors have been implicated in the development, maintenance and function, both of adipose tissues, as well as of the cartilage and other joint tissues. Alterations in these factors can be the additional link between obesity and osteoarthritis.
Adipocytes interact with other cells through producing and secreting a variety of signalling molecules, including the cell signalling proteins known as adipokines.
Certain adipokines can be considered as hormones, as they regulate the functions of organs at a distance, and several of them have been specifically involved in the physiopathology of joint diseases. In particular, there is one, leptin, which has been the focus of attention for research in recent years. The circulating leptin levels are positively correlated with the Body Mass Index BMI , more specifically with fatty mass, and obese individuals have higher leptin levels in their blood circulation, compared with non-obese individuals.
In addition to the function of regulating energy homeostasis, leptin carries out a role in other physiological functions such as neuroendocrine communication, reproduction, angiogenesis and bone formation.
More recently, leptin has been recognised as a cytokine factor as well as with pleiotropic actions also in the immune response and inflammation. Leptin has thus emerged as a candidate to link obesity and osteoarthritis and serves as an apparent objective as a nutritional treatment for osteoarthritis. As in the plasma, the leptin levels in the synovial fluid are positively correlated with BMI. Leptin has been shown to be produced by chondrocytes, as well as by other tissues in the joints, including the synovial tissue, osteophytes, the meniscus and bone.
The risk of suffering osteoarthritis can be decreased with weight loss. This reduction of risk is related in part with the decrease of the load on the joint, but also in the decrease of fatty mass, the central adipose tissue and the low-level inflammation associated with obesity and systemic factors. This growing evidence points to leptin as a cartilage degradation factor in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis, and as a potential biomarker in the progression of the disease, which suggests that leptin, as well as regulation and signalling mechanisms, can be a new and promising target in the treatment of osteoarthritis, especially in obese patients.
Obese individuals are predisposed to developing osteoarthritis, not only due to the excess mechanical load, but also due to the excess expression of soluble factors, that is, leptin and pro-inflammatory cytokines, which contribute to joint inflammation and cartilage destruction. As such, obese individuals are in an altered state, due to a metabolic insufficiency, which requires specific nutritional treatment capable of normalising the leptin production and reducing the systematic low-level inflammation, in order to reduce the harmful impact of these systematic mediators on the joint health.
There are nutritional supplements and pharmacological agents capable of directing these factors and improving both conditions. Leptin was approved in the United States in for use in congenital leptin deficiency and generalized lipodystrophy.
An analog of human leptin metreleptin trade name Myalept was first approved in Japan in , and in the United States in February In the US it is indicated as a treatment for complications of leptin deficiency, and for the diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia associated with congenital or acquired generalized lipodystrophy. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Not to be confused with Lectin or Lecithin. Structure of the obese protein leptin-E Leptin plays a critical role in the adaptive response to starvation.
Leptin receptor and Energy expenditure. Bearing in mind that other hormones such as ghrelin operate in a faster-time scale, it would be misleading to define it as "the satiety hormone".
Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. World Rev Nutr Diet. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. Journal of Clinical Investigation. A complex hub among inflammation, metabolism, and immunity". The Inside Story of the Obesity Industry. RNA expression pattern and mapping on the physical, cytogenetic, and genetic maps of chromosome 7". Wei Sheng Yan Jiu in Chinese. Studies in lean and obese subjects and during short-term fasting". Int J Sports Med.
Studies in vivo and in vitro". Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. Lay summary — medicinenet. The Journal of Neuroscience. International journal of obesity Lond. Lay summary — WebMD. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol.
Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology. Cell and Tissue Research. Focus on "Fructose-induced leptin resistance exacerbates weight gain in response to subsequent high-fat feeding," by Shapiro et al". Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. Current Opinion in Rheumatology. Insights from mouse models of obesity". Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology. Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society.
Contribution of joint tissues to their articular production". Survey of the effects of W on inflammatory mediators produced by OA cartilage as detected by protein antibody array". Retrieved 30 April Thyroid hormones T 3 T 4 Calcitonin Thyroid axis. Glucagon Insulin Amylin Somatostatin Pancreatic polypeptide. Eptinezumab Erenumab Fremanezumab Galcanezumab. Corticorelin Corticotropin releasing hormone Sauvagine Urocortin Antagonists: Galanin Galanin Galmic Galnon Antagonists: Dasiglucagon Glucagon Oxyntomodulin Antagonists: Melanin concentrating hormone Antagonists: Neurotensin Neuromedin N Antagonists: Orexin A , B Antagonists: D 2 receptor agonists e.
D 2 receptor antagonists e. Donny was good friends with MJ and often looks back on their time together fondly.
One of his favorite memories was after the American Music Awards when he was just 17 where he asked Michael Jackson if he was hungry. Donny once revealed that whenever they do an interview, Marie specifically asks for the lighting to be changed in a way that suits her. Jimmy has been quoted as saying that show business is not a fair business, although things are different now. This fortune was amassed from live performances, and the movies and TV shows they were in. The money the family has made through their live entertainment has allowed them to fund their other ventures, feed their families, and live a pretty comfortable life.
Marie Osmond has tried not to become a diva throughout her decades of fame, but she did have one request when agreeing to perform at the Flamingo in Las Vegas. She wanted the larger dressing room. Admittedly, she said it was simply because she had more kids and needed the space to practically live there. Jimmy Osmond has always had a bit of a thing for cars, so when the family were at the height of their career, he would splash out often.
He also bought his first house when he was just years-old, presumingly needing somewhere to stash all of the cars he was buying. The photo below shows Jimmy with a DeLorean that is similar to the one he bought in the s.
There were many conspiracy theories as to why Donny Osmond always wore purple socks; from OCD through to them being his lucky charm. She came up with the format of providing each child one color sock, so people could tell who was who. When Marie turned 16, Lucille Ball offered Marie a trick or two that has stuck with the Osmond daughter forever.
This could be why Marie now has to have her lighting in a certain way during interviews and stage performances. Imagine getting showbiz lessons from Lucille Ball! Luckily, Donny stuck true to his Mormon roots and refused to play any part of the PR game, staying clean his whole life. Remember the song, Could She Be Mine? In Donny was seeing a girl called Tammy, and his brother was seeing a girl named Debbie. Marie Osmond was looking a little plumper when she realized that she needed to slim down for both her health as well as her career.
And according to the commercials, she allegedly lost dozens of pounds on the nutrisystem diet. However, at around the same time she started on the diet, she also started performing on Dancing with the Stars which required her to work out six hours a day, as well as joined a running club. The oldest of the sons, Donald, is nearly 20 years older than his youngest brother Joshua. The second born son was the first to get married and give Donny a grandchild, while Brandon and Donald Jr.
After the birth of her child Brandon, Marie thought she had a typical case of the baby blues, which occurs after the hormones from the baby are not longer there, creating a hormonal imbalance within the mother. However, the feelings did not go away, and it turned out that she was suffering from postpartum depression. Marie now talks about it extensively, and encourages women to go seek treatment the moment they think that they may have it.
The Osmond family went out to Los Angeles in order to try and meet with record executives and land a major record deal. However, the day that they were supposed to meet with the record producer, the producer was busy, so father George took them to Disneyland. The kids saw the Dapper Dan Disney barbershop quartet and began singing with them. They attracted a crowd, including Tommy Walker, who was the director of guest relations at the park. He asked them to sing in Disney After Dark that night.
They then got cancelled by the television network, and then tried to do two more studio albums to cover the costs of the studio they built.
However, these also flopped. Yet they pulled themselves up by their bootstraps and repaid all their debts instead of declaring bankruptcy. Did someone buy you an Osmund Band CD anytime in the last 15 years?
You might want to check out when that CD was made, because there is a good chance it is fake. The only way people were able to get a hold of Osmund CDs before was if they were bought illegally.
After , the family decided that it would be a good idea to finally start selling their music on the new form of media. Too bad that MP3s already existed by then. Alan Osmond decided that he would quit the band and go on a Mormon mission trip.
He fasted and prayed for several days, and at the end of it, he felt that the mission trip was not right for him. He decided not to go, and so he decided to join the military to go to Vietnam. Alan knew that he was not going to physically fight, but everyone has to go through basic training in the army.
It turns out that his years in show business prepared him for boot camp, which made it a breeze for him. Alan would come out of basic training with three trophies. David Osmond was diagnosed with multiple sclerosis at the age of The singer and nephew to Donny Osmond actually was wheelchair bound for a time and could not even walk without a cane. However, after a huge shot of steroids so that he could walk down the aisle and marry his fiance.
After the shot, he has felt much better, and while he still feels pain, he is no longer wheelchair bound by it. Jay Osmond was the drummer for the Osmond family band, and he wrote an autobiography titled Stages.
In the book, Jay tries to take the reader through the different challenges the family faced while they were on the road throughout the s, as well as what it was like working with the people the band collaborated with, including Elvis Presley and The Beatles.
Jay Osmond actually wrote the book like a play due to all the stages the family performed on. The Osmonds were not the only musical performing family around in the s. Another musically talented family was the Jackson Five, hailing all the way from Gary, Indiana. The Jackson Five and the Osmond Family used to coordinate shows together. In fact, one time when the two families were staying at the same hotel in Toronto, Canada, the kids of both families decided to have a big football game against each other.
The Osmond family has grown to be quite large over the last three generations. From Olive and George Osmond came nine children, and as of , they had 55 grandchildren, and approximately 70 great grandchildren equalling descendants. People used to want to meet the Osmonds so much that they would do literally anything to get close to them.
One of the craziest things that someone did in order to get to physically touch this musical, singing family was when someone literally mailed herself to the hotel room where the Osmonds were staying. Wow, talk about a committed fan base. Not only did the two families perform at the same time, but so too did they hang out together quite a lot.
And through that friendship he learned that many songs written for the Jackson were given to the Osmonds and vice-versa. In fact, both families would watch each other on the variety shows in order to get tips. In another, somewhat creepier moment, there was a time when the Osmond family was in Florida performing for their fans there. At the end of the show, when the whole family was going back to the hotel to sleep, they all of a sudden noticed ropes hanging down on their hotel room balcony.
The family called the lobby to see what it was. It turns out it was two fans who had climbed up onto the roof and were repelling down to their room. But the way that these people would get exposed to different kinds of music was by going on various variety shows and hearing all different kinds of genres and incorporating them into their own acts.
Another crazy thing that a young girl did in order to meet the Osmonds was hide under the stage. Now, we know what you must be thinking — she must have hidden BACKstage and gotten to meet the Osmonds that way. The youngest of the Osmond brothers Jimmy Osmond was on a British reality television show called Pop Star to Operastar, a show where they take pop musicians and teach them to sing opera. He said it was one of the most difficult things he had ever done, but he said that he loved it.
He had been singing the same way since he was three years old, and he says that it was incredible to hear his voice differently. Marie is known for having her fair share of difficulties in life. However, she never expected her adopted son Michael to take his own life in His suicide note said that he wanted to end his depression demons and his battle with alcohol and drugs.
Marie also attempted to take her own life back in , when suffering from postnatal depression. Many people wonder if the family is cursed, or have passed down their troubles to their own children, having had such tough upbringings themselves. The summer is the ultimate time for a family to travel when workloads are lighter, school is out and the sun in shining.
Where you decide to