The Digestive and Endocrine System Game
When they are born, their intestines do not contain these bacteria they are completely sterile. Just before the connection to the stomach there is a "zone of high pressure," called the lower esophageal sphincter; this is a "valve" meant to keep food from passing backwards into the esophagus. G Activities to use when teaching the digestive system. In addition to holding the food, it's also a mixer and grinder. Digestion is a complex process controlled by several factors. Peristalsis contractions is also at work in this organ, moving food through and mixing it up with digestive secretions. Stool, or waste left over from the digestive process, is passed through the colon by means of peristalsis contractions , first in a liquid state and ultimately in solid form as the water is removed from the stool.
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It consists of the mouth , or oral cavity, with its teeth , for grinding the food, and its tongue, which serves to knead food and mix it with saliva ; the throat, or pharynx ; the esophagus ; the stomach ; the small intestine , consisting of the duodenum , the jejunum, and the ileum ; and the large intestine , consisting of the cecum , a closed-end sac connecting with the ileum, the ascending colon, the transverse colon, the descending colon, and the sigmoid colon , which terminates in the rectum.
Glands contributing digestive juices include the salivary glands , the gastric glands in the stomach lining, the pancreas , and the liver and its adjuncts—the gallbladder and bile ducts. All of these organs and glands contribute to the physical and chemical breaking down of ingested food and to the eventual elimination of nondigestible wastes. Their structures and functions are described step by step in this section. Little digestion of food actually takes place in the mouth. However, through the process of mastication , or chewing, food is prepared in the mouth for transport through the upper digestive tract into the stomach and small intestine, where the principal digestive processes take place.
Chewing is the first mechanical process to which food is subjected. Movements of the lower jaw in chewing are brought about by the muscles of mastication the masseter, the temporal, the medial and lateral pterygoids, and the buccinator. The sensitivity of the periodontal membrane that surrounds and supports the teeth, rather than the power of the muscles of mastication, determines the force of the bite.
Mastication is not essential for adequate digestion. Chewing does aid digestion, however, by reducing food to small particles and mixing it with the saliva secreted by the salivary glands.
The saliva lubricates and moistens dry food, while chewing distributes the saliva throughout the food mass. The movement of the tongue against the hard palate and the cheeks helps to form a rounded mass, or bolus , of food.
The lips, two fleshy folds that surround the mouth, are composed externally of skin and internally of mucous membrane , or mucosa. The mucosa is rich in mucus-secreting glands, which together with saliva ensure adequate lubrication for the purposes of speech and mastication.
The cheeks, the sides of the mouth, are continuous with the lips and have a similar structure. A distinct fat pad is found in the subcutaneous tissue the tissue beneath the skin of the cheek; this pad is especially large in infants and is known as the sucking pad. On the inner surface of each cheek, opposite the second upper molar tooth, is a slight elevation that marks the opening of the parotid duct, leading from the parotid salivary gland , which is located in front of the ear.
Just behind this gland are four to five mucus-secreting glands, the ducts of which open opposite the last molar tooth. The roof of the mouth is concave and is formed by the hard and soft palate. The hard palate is formed by the horizontal portions of the two palatine bones and the palatine portions of the maxillae, or upper jaws. The hard palate is covered by a thick, somewhat pale mucous membrane that is continuous with that of the gums and is bound to the upper jaw and palate bones by firm fibrous tissue.
The soft palate is continuous with the hard palate in front. Posteriorly it is continuous with the mucous membrane covering the floor of the nasal cavity. The soft palate is composed of a strong, thin, fibrous sheet, the palatine aponeurosis, and the glossopalatine and pharyngopalatine muscles.
A small projection called the uvula hangs free from the posterior of the soft palate. Add about a half cup of milk. Peanut butter sandwiches can be a bit dry, you know. Use the masher to mash the food and drink, explaining that the masher is like your back teeth which are designed for grinding up the food.
Once the sandwich and milk resemble slop, empty it into the quart size bag which you can explain is like the stomach. You may dump it directly in the bag, or through a wide-mouth funnel to stand in as the esophagus. This process required an extra set of hands, thus a lack of photos for this step!
Add a little Coke. Explain that the stomach has chemicals acids that break down the food. Saliva also works on food break down as do other enzymes and bile added in the small intestine--given the age of my son I kept it simple. You could certainly add a little green food coloring and talk about the liver, gallbladder and bile Using your hands mix the food and Coke in the bag.
Explain how your hands are working like the muscles in the wall of the stomach mixing and churning this slurry. This is when it starts looking a little gross.
Depending on your audience you could pause here and mention the process of vomiting. Now the food is ready for the small intestine. Have your basin ready and pour your slurry into the nylon. Liquid will leak out through the material. You can explain that the fluid is like nutrients your body is removing from the food in the small intestine.
Feel free to squeeze a little for effect. Now for the large intestine. You could squeeze the food into a second nylon, but we just stuck with one and explained that the food was now moving into the large intestine. Lay the nylon on multiple paper towels layers and roll it up tightly, squeezing and patting as you go. Explain that our body takes all the available water out of the food that remains in the large intestine.
This video describes what happens in the human digestive system. View Item Digestive Story Posted by: G After learning about how the digestive system works, have your students pretend that they are a piece of food their choice and write a story their journey through the digestive system.
Then they can illustrate the story and display them on the bulletin board. View Item Digestive Drawing Posted by: G Have students use pictures in their textbook or other sources to make their own drawing of the digestive system.
They should label the important parts of the digestive system and color each part a different color. This is great for your visual learners. Do not copy, reproduce or transmit. Digestive System Compiled By: G Activities to use when teaching the digestive system. I taped a map of the heart and the digestive system to the floor. The kids could walk through the process for both.
With the digestive system we put together a "ball" of food and at each new stage, what student standing at that location had to describe what they were doing to the food and then do it. To determine the amount of time for something to pass through the digestive system: