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The mouthing of each other's muzzles is a friendly gesture, while clamping on the muzzle with bared teeth is a dominance display. Similar to humans, gray wolves have facial color patterns in which the gaze direction can be easily identified, although this is often not the case in other canid species.
In , a study compared the facial color pattern across 25 canid species. The results suggested that the facial color pattern of canid species is related to their gaze communication, and that especially gray wolves use the gaze signal in conspecific communication. Gray wolves howl to assemble the pack usually before and after hunts , to pass on an alarm particularly at a den site , to locate each other during a storm or unfamiliar territory and to communicate across great distances.
Pups almost never howl, while yearling wolves produce howls ending in a series of dog-like yelps. The pitch usually remains constant or varies smoothly, and may change direction as many as four or five times. When pursuing prey, they emit a higher pitched howl, vibrating on two notes. When closing in on their prey, they emit a combination of a short bark and a howl.
The two are however mutually intelligible , as North American wolves have been recorded to respond to European-style howls made by biologists. Other vocalisations of wolves are usually divided into three categories: Wolves do not bark as loudly or continuously as dogs do, but bark a few times and retreat from perceived danger.
Pups commonly growl when playing. One variation of the howl is accompanied by a high pitched whine, which precedes a lunging attack.
Olfaction is probably the wolf's most acute sense, and plays a fundamental role in communication. The wolf has a large number of apocrine sweat glands on the face, lips, back, and between the toes.
The odor produced by these glands varies according to the individual wolf's microflora and diet, giving each a distinct "odor fingerprint".
A combination of apocrine and eccrine sweat glands on the feet allows the wolf to deposit its scent whilst scratching the ground, which usually occurs after urine marking and defecation during the breeding season. The follicles present on the guard hairs from the wolf's back have clusters of apocrine and sebaceous glands at their bases.
As the skin on the back is usually folded, this provides a microclimate for bacterial propagation around the glands. During piloerection, the guard hairs on the back are raised and the skin folds spread, thus releasing scent. The pre-caudal scent glands may play a role in expressing aggression, as combative wolves raise the base of their tails whilst drooping the tip, thus positioning the scent glands at the highest point. The components of anal sac secretions vary according to season and gender, thus indicating that the secretions provide information related to gender and reproductive state.
The secretions of the preputial glands may advertise hormonal condition or social position, as dominant wolves have been observed to stand over subordinates, apparently presenting the genital area for investigation,  which may include genital licking. During the breeding season, female wolves secrete substances from the vagina , which communicate the females' reproductive state, and can be detected by males from long distances.
Urine marking is the best-studied means of olfactory communication in wolves. Its exact function is debated, though most researchers agree that its primary purpose is to establish boundaries. Wolves urine mark more frequently and vigorously in unfamiliar areas, or areas of intrusion, where the scent of other wolves or canids is present. So-called raised leg urination RLU is more common in male wolves than in females, and may serve the purpose of maximizing the possibility of detection by conspecifics, as well as reflect the height of the marking wolf.
Only dominant wolves typically use RLU, with subordinate males continuing to use the juvenile standing posture throughout adulthood. The gray wolf is a habitat generalist, and can occur in deserts , grasslands , forests and arctic tundras. Habitat use by gray wolves is strongly correlated with the abundance of prey, snow conditions, absence or low livestock densities, road densities, human presence and topography.
The warmth of the footpads is regulated independently of the rest of the body, and is maintained at just above tissue-freezing point where the pads come in contact with ice and snow.
During the autumn-spring period, when wolves are more active, they willingly lie out in the open, whatever their location. Actual dens are usually constructed for pups during the summer period. When building dens, females make use of natural shelters such as fissures in rocks, cliffs overhanging riverbanks and holes thickly covered by vegetation. Sometimes, the den is the appropriated burrow of smaller animals such as foxes, badgers or marmots. An appropriated den is often widened and partly remade.
On rare occasions, female wolves dig burrows themselves, which are usually small and short with 1—3 openings. The odour of urine and rotting food emanating from the denning area often attracts scavenging birds such as magpies and ravens. As there are few convenient places for burrows, wolf dens are usually occupied by animals of the same family.
Though they mostly avoid areas within human sight, wolves have been known to nest near domiciles , paved roads and railways. Although wolves primarily feed on medium to large sized ungulates , they are not fussy eaters. Smaller sized animals that may supplement the diet of wolves include marmots , hares , badgers , foxes , weasels , ground squirrels , mice , hamsters , voles and other rodents , as well as insectivores. They frequently eat waterfowl and their eggs.
When such foods are insufficient, they prey on lizards , snakes , frogs , rarely toads and large insects as available. In times of scarcity, wolves readily eat carrion , visiting cattle burial grounds and slaughter houses. In Eurasia, many gray wolf populations are forced to subsist largely on livestock and garbage in areas with dense human activity, though wild ungulates such as moose , red deer , roe deer and wild boar are still the most important food sources in Russia and the more mountainous regions of Eastern Europe.
Other prey species include reindeer , argali , mouflon , wisent , saiga , ibex , chamois , wild goats , fallow deer and musk deer. Animals preferred as prey by North American wolves include moose, white-tailed deer , elk , mule deer , bighorn sheep , Dall's sheep , American bison , muskox and caribou. Wolves supplement their diet with fruit and vegetable matter. They willingly eat the berries of mountain ash , lily of the valley , bilberries , blueberries and cowberry. Other fruits include nightshade , apples and pears.
They readily visit melon fields during the summer months. Gray wolves typically dominate other canid species in areas where they both occur.
In North America, incidents of gray wolves killing coyotes are common, particularly in winter, when coyotes feed on wolf kills. Wolves may attack coyote den sites, digging out and killing their pups, though rarely eating them.
There are no records of coyotes killing wolves, though coyotes may chase wolves if they outnumber them. Brown bears typically dominate wolf packs in disputes over carcasses, while wolf packs mostly prevail against bears when defending their den sites. Both species kill each other's young. Wolves eat the brown bears they kill, while brown bears seem to only eat young wolves. The majority of black bear encounters with wolves occur in the species' northern range, with no interactions being recorded in Mexico.
Wolves have been recorded on numerous occasions to actively seek out black bears in their dens and kill them without eating them. Unlike brown bears, black bears frequently lose against wolves in disputes over kills.
Wolves may encounter striped hyenas in Israel, Central Asia and India, usually in disputes over carcasses. Striped hyenas feed extensively on wolf-killed carcasses in areas where the two species interact. One-to-one, hyenas dominate wolves, and may prey on them,  but wolf packs can drive off single or outnumbered hyenas. Large wolf populations limit the numbers of small to medium-sized felines.
Wolves encounter cougars along portions of the Rocky Mountains and adjacent mountain ranges. Wolves and cougars typically avoid encountering each other by hunting on different elevations. In winter, however, when snow accumulation forces their prey into valleys, interactions between the two species become more likely. Wolves in packs usually dominate cougars and can steal kills. They have been reported killing mothers and their kittens.
Wolves may kill lynxes by running them down, or killing them before they can escape into trees. Leftovers of wolf kills are sometimes scavenged by wolverines. Wolverines usually wait until the wolves are done feeding, but have been known to drive away wolves from kills. However, there have been confirmed reports of wolf packs killing wolverines. Other than humans, tigers appear to be the only serious predators of wolves. Wolves appear capable of escaping competitive exclusion from tigers only when human persecution decreases tiger numbers.
Proven cases of tigers killing wolves are rare and attacks appear to be competitive rather than predatory in nature, with at least four proven records of tigers killing wolves without consuming them. However, deliberate human persecution has reduced the species' range to about one third, because of livestock predation and fear of attacks on humans.
Wolf population declines have been arrested since the s, and have fostered recolonization and reintroduction in parts of its former range, due to legal protection, changes in land-use and rural human population shifts to cities. Competition with humans for livestock and game species, concerns over the danger posed by wolves to people, and habitat fragmentation pose a continued threat to the species.
Despite these threats, because of the gray wolf's relatively widespread range and stable population, it is classified as least concern by the IUCN. Although wolf-dog hybridization in Europe has raised concern among conservation groups fearing for the gray wolf's purity, genetic tests show that introgression of dog genes into European gray wolf populations does not pose a significant threat.
Also, as wolf and dog mating seasons do not fully coincide, the likelihood of wild wolves and dogs mating and producing surviving offspring is small. The extermination of Northern Europe 's wolves first became an organized effort during the Middle Ages , and continued until the late 19th century. In England , wolf persecution was enforced by legislation , and the last wolf was killed in the early sixteenth century during the reign of Henry VII.
Wolves lasted longer in Scotland , where they sheltered in vast tracts of forest, which were subsequently burned down. Wolves managed to survive in the forests of Braemar and Sutherland until The extirpation of wolves in Ireland followed a similar course, with the last wolf believed to have been killed in The Sami extirpated wolves in northern Sweden in organized drives. By , few wolves remained in Sweden, because of the use of snowmobiles in hunting them, with the last specimen being killed in The gray wolf was exterminated in Denmark in and Norway's last wolf was killed in The species was decimated in 20th century Finland, despite regular dispersals from Russia.
The gray wolf was only present in the eastern and northern parts of Finland by , though its numbers increased after World War II. In Central Europe , wolves were dramatically reduced in number during the early nineteenth century, because of organized hunts and reductions in ungulate populations.
In Bavaria , the last wolf was killed in , and had disappeared from the Rhine regions by Today, wolves have returned to the area. The louveterie was abolished after the French Revolution in , but was re-established in In , up to 1, wolves were killed, with many more by poison.
In Eastern Europe , wolves were never fully exterminated, because of the area's contiguity with Asia and its large forested areas. However, Eastern European wolf populations were reduced to very low numbers by the late nineteenth century. Wolves were extirpated in Slovakia during the first decade of the twentieth century and, by the mid-twentieth century, could only be found in a few forested areas in eastern Poland.
Wolves in the eastern Balkans benefitted from the region's contiguity with the former Soviet Union and large areas of plains, mountains and farmlands. Wolves in Hungary occurred in only half the country around the start of the 20th century, and were largely restricted to the Carpathian Basin.
Wolf populations in Romania remained largely substantial, with an average of 2, wolves being killed annually out of a population of 4, from — An all-time low was reached in , when the population was reduced to 1, animals.
The extermination of wolves in Bulgaria was relatively recent, as a previous population of about 1, animals in was reduced to about — in In Greece, the species disappeared from the southern Peloponnese in Despite periods of intense hunting during the eighteenth century, wolves never disappeared in the western Balkans, from Albania to the former Yugoslavia.
In Southern Europe , wolf extermination was not as complete as in Northern Europe, because of greater cultural tolerance of the species.
Wolf populations only began declining in the Iberian Peninsula in the early 19th-century, and was reduced by a half of its original size by Wolf bounties were regularly paid in Italy as late as The recovery of European wolf populations began after the s, when traditional pastoral and rural economies declined and thus removed the need to heavily persecute wolves.
By the s, small and isolated wolf populations expanded in the wake of decreased human density in rural areas and the recovery of wild prey populations. The gray wolf has been fully protected in Italy since , and now holds a population of over 1,, By the wolves in the Western Alps imposed a significant burden on traditional sheep and goat husbandry with a loss of over 5, animals in In Spain , the species occurs in Galicia , Leon , and Asturias.
Although hundreds of Iberian wolves are illegally killed annually, the population has expanded south across the river Duero and east to the Asturias and Pyrenees Mountains. In , wolves began recolonising central Sweden after a twelve-year absence, and have since expanded into southern Norway.
As of , the total number of Swedish and Norwegian wolves is estimated to be at least one hundred, including eleven breeding pairs. The gray wolf is fully protected in Sweden and partially controlled in Norway.
The Scandinavian wolf populations owe their continued existence to neighbouring Finland's contiguity with the Republic of Karelia , which houses a large population of wolves. Furthermore, the decline in the moose populations has reduced the wolf's food supply. Wolf populations in Poland have increased to about — individuals since being classified as a game species in Poland plays a fundamental role in providing routes of expansion into neighbouring Central European countries.
In the east, its range overlaps with populations in Lithuania, Belarus , Ukraine , and Slovakia. A population in western Poland expanded into eastern Germany and in the first pups were born on German territory. A few Slovakian wolves disperse into the Czech Republic, where they are afforded full protection.
Wolves in Slovakia, Ukraine and Croatia may disperse into Hungary, where the lack of cover hinders the buildup of an autonomous population. Although wolves have special status in Hungary, they may be hunted with a year-round permit if they cause problems.
Romania has a large population of wolves, numbering 2, animals. The wolf has been a protected animal in Romania since , although the law is not enforced. The number of wolves in Albania and Macedonia is largely unknown, despite the importance the two countries have in linking wolf populations from Greece to those of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia. Although protected, sometimes wolves are still illegally killed in Greece, and their future is uncertain.
Wolf numbers have declined in Bosnia and Herzegovina since , while the species is fully protected in neighbouring Croatia and Slovenia. During the 19th century, gray wolves were widespread in many parts of the Holy Land east and west of the Jordan River.
However, they decreased considerably in number between and , largely because of persecution by farmers. Soviet wolf populations reached a low around , disappearing over much of European Russia.
The population increased again by to about 75,, with 32, being killed in By the s, wolf extermination remained a priority in the NWP and Awadh. Overall, over , wolves were killed for bounties in British India between and The wolf was deemed a threat to ranching, which the Meiji government promoted at the time, and targeted via a bounty system and a direct chemical extermination campaign inspired by the similar contemporary American campaign.
The last Japanese wolf was a male killed on January 23, near Washikaguchi now called Higashi Yoshiro. Japanese wolves likely underwent a process of island dwarfism 7,—13, years ago in response to these climatological and ecological pressures. There is little reliable data on the status of wolves in the Middle East , save for those in Israel and Saudi Arabia , though their numbers appear to be stable, and are likely to remain so. Israel's conservation policies and effective law enforcement maintain a moderately sized wolf population, which radiates into neighbouring countries, while Saudi Arabia has vast tracts of desert, where about — wolves live undisturbed.
The mountains of Turkey have served as a refuge for the few wolves remaining in Syria. A small wolf population occurs in the Golan Heights , and is well protected by the military activities there. Wolves living in the southern Negev desert are contiguous with populations living in the Egyptian Sinai and Jordan. Throughout the Middle East, the species is only protected in Israel. Elsewhere, it can be hunted year-round by Bedouins.
Little is known of current wolf populations in Iran, which once occurred throughout the country in low densities during the mids. The northern regions of Afghanistan and Pakistan are important strongholds for the wolf. Overall, India supports about , wolves, scattered among several remnant populations. Although protected since , Indian wolves are classed as endangered, with many populations lingering in low numbers or living in areas increasingly used by humans.
Although present in Nepal and Bhutan , there is no information of wolves occurring there. Wolf populations throughout Northern and Central Asia are largely unknown, but are estimated in the hundreds of thousands based on annual harvests. Since the fall of the Soviet Union , continent-wide extermination of wolves has ceased, and wolf populations have increased to about 25,—30, animals throughout the former Soviet Union.
In China and Mongolia , wolves are only protected in reserves. Mongolian populations have been estimated at 10,—30,, while the status of wolves in China is more fragmentary. The north has a declining population of an estimated wolves, while Xinjiang and Tibet hold about 10, and 2, respectively. It exists in southern China, which refutes claims made by some researchers in the Western world that the wolf had never existed in southern China. It occurred all over the mainland, save for the southeastern United States, California west of the Sierra Nevada , and the tropical and subtropical areas of Mexico.
Large continental islands occupied by wolves included Newfoundland , Vancouver Island , southeastern Alaskan islands, and throughout the Arctic Archipelago and Greenland. In his November 6, letter to the French Minister of the Marine, Louis Denys de La Ronde reported that the island was home to wolves "of a prodigious size", and sent a wolf pelt back to France to substantiate his claim.
As the island was cleared for settlement, the gray wolf population may have been extirpated, or relocated to the mainland across the winter ice: The decline of North American wolf populations coincided with increasing human populations and the expansion of agriculture.
By the start of the 20th century, the species had almost disappeared from the eastern USA, excepting some areas of the Appalachians and the northwestern Great Lakes Region.
In Canada, the gray wolf was extirpated in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia between and , and in Newfoundland around It vanished from the southern regions of Quebec and Ontario between and The gray wolf's decline in the prairies began with the extermination of the American bison and other ungulates in the s—70s.
From —, the gray wolf was virtually eliminated from the western USA and adjoining parts of Canada, because of intensive predator control programs aimed at eradicating the species. The gray wolf was exterminated by federal and state governments from all of the USA by , except in Alaska and northern Minnesota. The decline in North American wolf populations was reversed from the s to the early s, particularly in southwestern Canada, because of expanding ungulate populations resulting from improved regulation of big game hunting.
This increase triggered a resumption of wolf control in western and northern Canada. Thousands of wolves were killed from the early s to the early s, mostly by poisoning. This campaign was halted and wolf populations increased again by the mids. The species' modern range in North America is mostly confined to Alaska and Canada, with populations also occurring in northern Minnesota, northern Wisconsin and Michigan 's Upper Peninsula , and small portions of Washington , Idaho , northern Oregon , and Montana.
A functional wolf population should exist in California by according to estimates by state wildlife officials. In addition, the Mexican wolf Canis lupus baileyi was reintroduced to Arizona and New Mexico in Canada is home to about 52,—60, wolves, whose legal status varies according to province and territory.
First Nations residents may hunt wolves without restriction, and some provinces require licenses for residents to hunt wolves while others do not. In Alberta , wolves on private land may be baited and hunted by the landowner without requiring a license, and in some areas, wolf hunting bounty programs exist.
Comparison between Nutrisystem and Jenny Craig Following table illustrates the similarities and differences between Nutrisystem and Jenny Craig, and compares their features so that you can take the decision on choosing Feature NutriSystem Jenny Craig Service Nutrisystem offers its dietary service through online, and do not have centres anywhere.
It offers you the convenience of ordering the diet plans online just sitting at home. You will have the meals delivered to your doorstep soon so that you can kick start your diet routine immediately. Jenny Craig offers its services both online, as well as in its dietary centres located in some of the places in the US. Contract Nutrisystem does not require any contract from you. So, you can quit its services anytime you like. It also allows you to purchase just one meal per order.
Jenny Craig wants commitment from you in the form of contract on how long you are going to use its services. So, you have to stick to the program throughout the period though you wish to quit it at a point of time. Diet Plans Nutrisystem provides different diet plans for men, women, vegetarians, diabetic patients, senior citizens, and others believing that different individuals have different diet requirements. So, you can choose diet plans as per your requirements.
Diet plans at Nutrisystem are customizable. Jenny Craig provides different plans for men and women, as well as according to your age group. However, it does not offer any vegetarian or diabetic diet plans. Menu Nutrisystem has more than items in its menu. You can find almost all the everyday foods at Nutrisystem which are given a diet twist so that you do not need to worry about heavy calories.
You have 80 times menu choice to choose from. Most of them are not everyday foods. Meals Nutrisystem diet plans include 5 portioned-meals per day, plus snacks and desserts. It includes 5 meals per day. Taste Most of the online reviews and testimonials shared by real users claim that food at Nutrisystem tastes too good.
Also, you have the chance of tasting the meals before ordering in bulk, because Nutrisystem is offering the users to buy the meals in single packs as well.
The meals are exactly like the regular diet meals that not offer good taste. Also, the menu includes repetitive items so you will get bored to have the same again and again. Graul started her career at the U. Securities and Exchange Commission, where she was a financial analyst and presidential fellow. Graul also is a member of the board of directors of Pelican Products. Michael also held various financial roles at Schering-Plough Corporation. PS Business Parks, Inc. Dave plans to remain at Incyte until the end of this year and will provide support during the transitional period.
Hanan also founded Advanced Sustainable Technologies in Israel. Gift served as an advisor to the company prior to joining its executive leadership team. Broccardo has also held key senior leadership roles encompassing pricing, strategic planning, and SEC reporting at Hines Nurseries, Lantronix and Ziba. Nicholls is also an advisor to the Marine Transport International. Marlin Business Services Corp.
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He started his professional career at the Boston Consulting Group. Hill , has informed the Mayor and City Council that he will be leaving his post by the end of December. Sastry currently serves as the director of the Office of U.