Criminal History Policy and Acknowledgement
These women, however, still maintained the "hourglass" shape with its relationship to fertility. This course includes introduction to research in exercise physiology. Catholic Higher Education in Protestant America: European Journal of Nutrition. The Union of Utrecht was an important step in the establishment of the Dutch Republic from to
A major focus will be on the terms used in the major organ systems of the body, diseases, injuries, and medical treatments. First Aid and CPR. A study of basic first aid procedures, cardiopulmonary resuscitation CPR , automated external defibrillation AED , and blood borne pathogens. Upon successful completion of this course students will be able to sit for national certification in first aid and CPR.
Study of the history and philosophy of physical activity, and an introduction to anatomy, physiology, biomechanics, motor behavior, and psychology of exercise and sport.
This course will also introduce careers in kinesiology and the requirements for graduation with a degree in kinesiology. Formerly titled "Cultural and Scientific Foundations of Kinesiology. Outdoor Activities and Innovative Games. Practice in delivering instructions of selected outdoor activities hiking, orienteering, biking and innovative games for all age groups. Weekend class field trips required. Laboratory fee will be assessed.
Formerly titled "Outdoor Activities and Lifetime Sports. Introduction to concepts and skills that will prepare the student to become an effective leader of physical fitness, sport and health, and physical education programs. Skill Analysis in Physical Activity: Practice in delivering developmentally appropriate physical activity instruction in a variety of selected individual activities such as golf, bowling, archery, and track and field.
This course will discuss the principles and philosophies of coaching sports. Domains will remain consistent with that of the National Standards for Sport Coaches and will focus on philosophy and ethics, safety and injury prevention, physical conditioning, growth and development, teaching and communication, sport skills and tactics, organization and administration, and evaluation.
Practice in delivering developmentally appropriate physical activity instruction in a variety of selected team sports, such as football, volleyball, and team handball.
Practice in delivering developmentally appropriate physical activity instruction in a variety of selected dual sports, such as badminton, tennis and handball. Practice in delivering a variety of appropriate aerobic, musculoskeletal fitness, and wellness activities for children and adults. Formerly titled "Aerobic Fitness Instruction. Provide instruction in facilitating the foundational movement skills which provide the basis for all movement capacities and their application in specialized activities geared to the early childhood through adolescent stages.
Formerly titled "Rhythmical Activities and Dance. Instructional techniques applied to health related fitness using resistance training, balance, flexibility, and musculoskeletal conditioning activities. A study of motor, physical, and neuromuscular development across the human life span.
Effects of social, cognitive, growth and maturation, and aging factors on motor development will be addressed. Directed field experience may be required.
Scientific Principles of Physical Activity. A study of the physiological and biomechanical principles of physical activity and human movement. Emphasis is placed on acute responses and chronic adaptations of the musculoskeletal and cardiorespiratory systems to physical activity.
Care and Prevention of Athletic Injuries. Prevention and care of athletic injuries. A study of training and conditioning for the team and individual. Techniques and procedures for emergencies: Organization of the training room facility. Formerly titled "Athletic Injuries and Training Procedures. Anatomy and Physiology for Kinesiology. A detailed study of anatomy and physiology of the human cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal and nervous systems.
Emphasis will be placed on the anatomical factors that cause human movement and application to common exercise-related injuries. Anatomy laboratory hours may be required. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of human movement through analysis of video and biomechanical data. Application of Biomechanics to sports performance enhancement and injury prevention. The study of the human body in sports motion and sport objects in motion.
The application of mechanical principles, kinematics, and kinetics. Biomechanics laboratory hours are required. Development, organization, and delivery of appropriate physical activities for children through the adolescent stage.
Some fieldwork observation experiences may be required. Laboratory exercises demonstrating principles of exercise physiology. Topics include metabolic, cardiorespiratory, and neuromuscular responses to physical activity and exercise. A study of the adaptation and effects of the body to physiological stress. Emphasis will be placed on the physiology of training, metabolism and work capacity, and electrocardiography. Health Related Fitness Assessment Laboratory.
This course includes laboratory and clinical measurements of aerobic capacity, balance, body composition, electrocardiography, flexibility, muscular endurance, muscular strength, and pulmonary function.
Students are required to demonstrate competence in administering health related physical fitness. Health Related Fitness Assessment. A study of the principles and concepts of fitness measurement. Topics include graded exercise testing, electrocardiography, assessment of aerobic capacity, body composition, flexibility, muscular strength, muscular endurance, and pulmonary function. Fitness Programming and Exercise Prescription.
A study and application of principles and concepts related to designing exercise programs. The target population includes apparently healthy adults and individuals with special considerations, including cardiovascular disease, pulmonary disease, obesity, diabetes, pregnancy, and children. A detailed examination of the nervous, muscular, and skeletal systems. This course focuses on bones. The etiology and pathophysiology of common sport and exercise related injuries to the musculoskeleton will be introduced.
Laboratory examination of the skeletal system may be required. An investigation of psychological processes and behaviors related to participation in exercise and physical activities. Psychological effects of exercise, motives for fitness, exercise adherence, and fitness counseling.
This course is designed to introduce students to a variety of therapeutic modalities currently used in clinical rehabilitation. Application of test, measurement, and evaluation theory. Emphasis is on proper selection and administration of tests, appropriate evaluation of test results using basic statistical procedures, and assignment of grades.
Introduction to Sport Psychology. This course involves an in-depth study of the psychological factors that underlie and support human behavior and performance, particularly as it relates to sports. This course introduces contemporary and practical theories regarding mental processes and applicable uses for this information. Formerly titled "Psychosocial Aspects of Exercise and Sport.
Evaluation of Athletic Injuries. This course deals in depth with issues related to athletic training, including assessment of injuries, and proper taping and wrapping techniques. Formerly titled "Advanced Athletic Training. Teaching Secondary Physical Education. Examination of current trends, issues, and pedagogical approaches to the teaching and learning of physical education in the secondary school curriculum.
Contemporary programming, behavior management strategies, and community outreach activities will be emphasized. Weekly fieldwork in the public schools at the secondary school level is required. Restricted course; advisor code required for registration. In-depth study of exercise physiology, emphasizing application of physiological principles of training for physical fitness and sport performance, graded exercise testing, and professional issues.
This course includes introduction to research in exercise physiology. This course examines various therapeutic exercises and programs used in the treatment and rehabilitation of exercise-related injuries. This course will address the basic concepts of nutrition from a scientific basis, applying these concepts to understanding of food nutritional labeling, dietary recommendations for health and fitness, as well as exercise or sport performance enhancement.
This course will examine the essential knowledge, skills, and abilities necessary for exercise physiology practiced in clinical settings.
Topics will include diseases of the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and metabolic systems. Skills in administering graded exercise testing with ECG monitoring, pulmonary function testing, and screening for metabolic disease will be emphasized in laboratory settings. Additionally, exercise prescription and programming will be studied for persons with chronic disease.
Teaching Elementary Physical Education. Examination of current trends, issues, and pedagogical approaches to teaching and facilitating learning of physical education in the elementary school curriculum. Contemporary programming, problem solving, and community outreach activities will be emphasized. Weekly fieldwork in the public schools at the elementary school level is required. Study of concepts of movement awareness and the elements of movement that are the basis of all movement capacities.
Application of these concepts to the learning of motor skills will be included. Laboratory exercises demonstrating the principles of motor learning and motor control.
Functional applications of motor control and learning theory in skill instruction and sports performance. Motor learning laboratory hours are required. Theory of coaching relevant to athletics. Emphasis on organization and content involved in coaching sports. The sport content may vary in different semesters between baseball, basketball, football, soccer, softball, and volleyball. Course may be repeated for credit. A developmental and functional approach to the study of disabilities in physical activity.
Legislation, pathologies, and adaptation principles. Field experience is required throughout the course. Clinical Applications of Athletic Injuries. Consent of instructor and admission to the Athletic Training concentration or Kinesiology and Health Science concentration. This course provides practical applications in prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of athletic injuries, and includes hours of supervised field, laboratory and clinical experiences in athletic training.
May be repeated for credit for a maximum of 6 semester credit hours. Practicum in Kinesiology Research. Admission to Kinesiology major and consent of Instructor. This course provides supervised research experience in various areas of kinesiology.
May be repeated for credit, but not more than 6 semester credit hours will apply to a bachelor's degree. Supervised internship with appropriate agency in the field of kinesiology. First Aid and CPR certification and consent of instructor. Supervised coaching practicum with appropriate agency in the field of kinesiology.
Formerly titled "Practicum in Kinesiology. Organized course offering the opportunity for specialized study not normally or not often available as part of the regular course offerings.
Students will learn and apply counseling techniques to promote the adoption of health-promoting lifestyle behaviors in diverse populations. Basic counseling theories will be introduced.
Capstone course and seminar for students pursuing training and certification in exercise science, and preparation for graduate studies. Introduction to Nutritional Sciences. Basic concepts related to the classification and functions of nutrients; the process of digestion, absorption, transport, utilization, and storage of nutrients in humans and the interaction between diet and health. Applied Food Science Practicum. The application of concepts related to the chemical, physical, sensory, and nutritional properties of food in menu planning, food preparation, and recipe modification.
Introduction to Nutrition and Dietetics Careers. Nutrition and Dietetics majors only. General overview of nutrition and dietetics as a profession, including career opportunities, scope of practice, credentialing, code of ethics, and collaboration with other disciplines. Self-directed modules on medical terminology, word roots, prefixes and suffixes will be integrated into the course content.
Practicum related to the procurement, preparation, and delivery of food in large foodservice operations. Concepts related to the chemical, physical, sensory, and nutritional properties of food in menu planning, food preparation, and recipe modification. Nutrition and Health Assessment. Methods, tools, and interpretation of data in assessing the nutritional status of individuals including dietary, anthropometric, biochemical, and clinical assessment, as well as other measurements of health in individuals and the community.
Nutrition Counseling and Education. Discussion of theories of learning and behavior modification, models and techniques, communication skills, evaluation methods, and cultural competence in nutrition counseling and education; and application of concepts to facilitate behavioral change.
Nutrition in the Life Span. Nutritional needs during various stages of the lifecycle as influenced by physiologic, cultural, and environmental factors. Production and Foodservice System Management I. Principles related to the menu planning, food sanitation and safety, procurement, production, marketing, and materials management in foodservice operations Generally offered: Advanced discussion of nutrient structure, function and interaction, metabolic pathways, and regulation and integration of metabolism.
Application of learned strategies in meaningful community service through collaborative tasks performed at various community programs. Service learning activities are aimed at enriching the life experiences of students through civic responsibility and community outreach. Nutrition Care Process Practicum. A problem-based approach to dietetics practice using case simulations and studies; application of basic nutritional assessment skills, nutritional diagnosis, intervention, and monitoring in different settings; practice skills in counseling and nutrition education.
Theories and principles related to the foodservice, systems management including leadership, decision-making, human resources, and financial management of operations. Medical Nutrition Therapy I. Pathophysiology and the application of the nutritional care process in the treatment of simple human diseases and conditions, part 1. Nutrition-related issues in public health, various community resources, agencies, and programs involved in health promotion and disease prevention.
Nutrition in Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Medical Nutrition Therapy II. Continuation of Advanced Medical Nutrition I; and review of the pathophysiology and the application of the nutritional care process in the treatment of more complex human disease and conditions. Current Issues in Nutrition. In-depth discussion and analysis of emerging trends, concepts, and controversies in nutritional sciences, including application of evidence-based principles in the discussion.
Independent Study in Nutrition and Dietetics. An exploration of topics of interest to the student in Nutrition and Dietetics. Students work under the close supervision of a faculty member to conduct research, intense study, or a project related to the selected topic. Introduction to Public Health. Introduces students to the discipline of public health. It will cover a variety of disciplines to the basic tenets of public health.
The course will also cover the role of public health in a global society. Data Management in Public Health. Study of the skills required to design, organize and implement a data management system in public health applications. It will cover an introduction to data preparation for statistical analysis, development of organizational tools, methods of data acquisition, data collection form design, principles of database development, quality control of data, and data security.
Provides the student with basic knowledge about epidemiological applications in a behavioral area. It covers behavioral and social environmental issues related to disease etiology, premature morbidity and mortality patterns. Provides an overview of the epidemiology of specific health-related behaviors, the relationships between these behaviors and health outcomes, and available evidence for the effectiveness and appropriateness of various approaches to modification of these behaviors. Utilizes case discussion seminars to appraise the investigative methods and research designs for studying disease outbreaks and new epidemics.
Historical and current cases will include examples of disease outbreaks e. Each case will evaluate the background of the problem, the investigative methods employed, the results, and the interventions taken to resolve the problem. Utilizes case discussion seminars to appraise the investigative methods and research designs for studying chronic disease, disease exposure, and ascertainment of risk.
Cases will include current examples of chronic diseases or conditions affecting population health e. Each case will evaluate the background of the problem, the investigative methods employed, the results, and the public policy and practice implications from the research. Provides the opportunity for work experience in a private or public health-related agency. Opportunities are developed in consultation with faculty advisor and on-site coordinator. Supervised full-or part-time off-campus work experience and training in health care management.
A minimum of hours of work experience is required. Individual conferences and written reports required.
Special Studies in Public Health. The University of Texas at San Antonio. Department Honors The Department of Kinesiology, Health, and Nutrition awards Department Honors to certain outstanding students and provides the opportunity for advanced study under close faculty supervision.
Admission Policy The goal of admission requirements for the Health degree is to provide undergraduate students with a program of study with the highest possible standards. To declare a Health major, a pre-health student must have: Internship Eligibility Health majors are eligible to apply for an internship if they: Appeal Process Students who wish to appeal the internship requirement due to prior work experience may do so by completing and submitting the appeal form, available from the academic advisor, with written documentation to a three-member review committee.
Core Curriculum Requirements 42 semester credit hours Students seeking the B. Core Curriculum Component Area Requirements First Year Experience Requirement 3 semester credit hours All students must complete the following course, for a total of 3 semester credit hours: Select at least 15 semester credit hours from the following list of courses: Internship Policy Experiential learning is a valuable element for kinesiology professionals.
Internship Eligibility Kinesiology majors with no concentration are eligible to apply for an internship if they: In order to declare a major in Nutrition and Dietetics, a student must meet the following criteria: Must complete all support courses and most of the Texas Core requirements with a minimum cumulative grade point average GPA of 3. Detailed information about the courses, including the Texas common course numbers may be obtained from the Undergraduate Catalog. May not repeat a prerequisite course more than twice to meet the grade criteria.
Must complete all support courses prerequisite courses by the end of the summer semester prior to entering the program in the Fall Semester. Must submit a program application, two completed reference forms program specific preferably by faculty members and a statement indicating personal career goals, knowledge of the profession, commitment, interests, and motivation.
Must have a personal interview with the program faculty by invitation. Criminal Record Check A criminal background check is required during the semesters in which a student enrolls in field-based practicums.
Certificate in Athletic Coaching All students pursuing a Certificate in Athletic Coaching must complete the following 15 semester credit hours: Send Page to Printer.
Download PDF of this page. Download PDF of the entire catalog. Select 15 semester credit hours of the following: Select at least two of the following four courses: Additional designated electives can be taken from the following courses: All candidates for this degree must complete up to 23 hours of free electives to meet the hour minimum for the degree, including a sufficient number of electives at the upper-division level to meet the UTSA minimum of 39 upper-division hours.
Academic Inquiry and Scholarship core. Freshman Composition I Q core. Contemporary Biology I core. Introduction to Community and Public Health core and major. Freshman Composition II Q core. Public Health Foundation courses. All candidates for this degree must complete the following 38 semester credit hours of coursework: Health Promotion and Behavioral Science Concentration. All candidates for the degree in Public Health with a Health Promotion and Behavioral Science Concentration must complete the following 18 semester credit hours of coursework: Advanced Public Health Requirement.
All candidates for this degree must complete 6 hours of an internship in public health. All candidates for this degree must complete 6 hours of coursework in a single foreign language. All candidates for this degree must complete up to 19 hours of free electives to meet the hour minimum for the degree, including a sufficient number of electives at the upper-division level to meet the UTSA minimum of 39 upper-division hours.
Introduction to Sociology core. Basic Statistics core and major. Biosciences I core and major. Introduction to American Politics core. Biosciences II core and major. Component Area Option core. Introduction to Organization Theory, Behavior, and Management. Foreign language semester I. Program Planning and Evaluation Concentration course. Foreign language semester II. Public Health Internship repeated. Free elective to meet hour minimum.
All candidates for this degree must complete up to 28 hours of free electives to meet the hour minimum for the degree, including a sufficient number of electives at the upper-division level to meet the UTSA minimum of 39 upper-division hours. Contemporary Biology I core and major or Biosciences I. Basic Statistics or Probability and Statistics for the Biosciences. Business and Professional Speech or Public Speaking. Select 13 semester credit hours from the following courses: Contemporary Biology I core and major.
Public Speaking or Business and Professional Speech. Introduction to Psychology core and major or Introduction to Sociology. Designated elective or University core course. Biology, Business, Community Health, or Wellness. All candidates for this degree must complete enough hours of electives to meet the hour minimum for the degree, including a sufficient number of electives at the upper-division level to meet the UTSA minimum of 39 upper-division hours.
College Algebra with Applications core and major. Public Speaking core and major. Introduction to Psychology core and major.
This religious freedom ended however for some of the religions of Transylvania in After this year the Sabbatarians begun to be persecuted, and forced to convert to one of the accepted religions of Transylvania. Also the Unitarians despite of being one of the "accepted religions" started to be put under an ever-growing pressure, which culminated after the Habsburg conquest of Transylvania ,  Also after the Habsburg occupation, the new Austrian masters forced in the middle of the 18th century the Hutterite Anabaptists who found a safe heaven in in Transylvania, after the persecution to which they were subjected in the Austrian provinces and Moravia to convert to Catholicism or to migrate in another country, which finally the Anabaptists did, leaving Transylvania and Hungary for Wallachia, than from there to Russia, and finally in the United States.
In the Union of Utrecht 20 January , personal freedom of religion was declared in the struggle between the Northern Netherlands and Spain. The Union of Utrecht was an important step in the establishment of the Dutch Republic from to Under Calvinist leadership, the Netherlands became the most tolerant country in Europe. It granted asylum to persecuted religious minorities, such as the Huguenots, the Dissenters, and the Jews who had been expelled from Spain and Portugal.
When New Amsterdam surrendered to the English in , freedom of religion was guaranteed in the Articles of Capitulation. It benefitted also the Jews who had landed on Manhattan Island in , fleeing Portuguese persecution in Brazil. Intolerance of dissident forms of Protestantism also continued, as evidenced by the exodus of the Pilgrims, who sought refuge, first in the Netherlands, and ultimately in America, founding Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts in William Penn , the founder of Philadelphia, was involved in a case which had a profound effect upon future American laws and those of England.
In a classic case of jury nullification, the jury refused to convict William Penn of preaching a Quaker sermon, which was illegal. Even though the jury was imprisoned for their acquittal, they stood by their decision and helped establish the freedom of religion. The statute served as the basis for the legal position of Jews in Poland and led to the creation of the Yiddish -speaking autonomous Jewish nation until The statute granted exclusive jurisdiction of Jewish courts over Jewish matters and established a separate tribunal for matters involving Christians and Jews.
Additionally, it guaranteed personal liberties and safety for Jews including freedom of religion, travel, and trade. The statute was ratified by subsequent Polish Kings: Poland freed Jews from direct royal authority, opening up enormous administrative and economic opportunities to them. The right to worship freely was a basic right given to all inhabitants of the future Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth throughout the 15th and early 16th century, however, complete freedom of religion was officially recognized in during the Warsaw Confederation.
Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth kept religious freedom laws during an era when religious persecution was an everyday occurrence in the rest of Europe. Most of the early colonies were generally not tolerant of dissident forms of worship, with Maryland being one of the exceptions. For example, Roger Williams found it necessary to found a new colony in Rhode Island to escape persecution in the theocratically dominated colony of Massachusetts.
The Puritans of the Massachusetts Bay Colony were the most active of the New England persecutors of Quakers , and the persecuting spirit was shared by Plymouth Colony and the colonies along the Connecticut river. Freedom of religion was first applied as a principle of government in the founding of the colony of Maryland, founded by the Catholic Lord Baltimore , in The Maryland Toleration Act was repealed during the Cromwellian Era with the assistance of Protestant assemblymen and a new law barring Catholics from openly practicing their religion was passed.
This time, it would last more than thirty years, until  when, after Maryland's Protestant Revolution of , freedom of religion was again rescinded. Catholics and later on Jews also had full citizenship and free exercise of their religions. Williams gave the most profound argument: As faith is the free work of the Holy Spirit , it cannot be forced on a person.
Therefore, strict separation of church and state has to be kept. It was the inseparable connection between democracy, religious freedom, and the other forms of freedom which became the political and legal basis of the new nation.
Reiterating Maryland's and the other colonies' earlier colonial legislation, the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom , written in by Thomas Jefferson , proclaimed:. Those sentiments also found expression in the First Amendment of the national constitution, part of the United States' Bill of Rights: The United States formally considers religious freedom in its foreign relations.
The International Religious Freedom Act of established the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom which investigates the records of over other nations with respect to religious freedom, and makes recommendations to submit nations with egregious records to ongoing scrutiny and possible economic sanctions. Many human rights organizations have urged the United States to be still more vigorous in imposing sanctions on countries that do not permit or tolerate religious freedom.
Freedom of religion in Canada is a constitutionally protected right, allowing believers the freedom to assemble and worship without limitation or interference. Canadian law goes further, requiring that private citizens and companies provide reasonable accommodation to those, for example, with strong religious beliefs.
The Canadian Human Rights Act allows an exception to reasonable accommodation with respect to religious dress, such as a Sikh turban , when there is a bona fide occupational requirement, such as a workplace requiring a hard hat. This declaration recognizes freedom of religion as a fundamental human right in accordance with several other instruments of international law.
However, the most substantial binding legal instruments that guarantee the right to freedom of religion that was passed by the international community is the Convention on the Rights of the Child which states in its Article In , the UN's human rights committee declared that article 18 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights "protects theistic, non-theistic and atheistic beliefs, as well as the right not to profess any religion or belief.
Despite this, minority religions still are persecuted in many parts of the world. The French philosopher Voltaire noted in his book on English society, Letters on the English , that freedom of religion in a diverse society was deeply important to maintaining peace in that country. That it was also important in understanding why England at that time was more prosperous in comparison to the country's less religiously tolerant European neighbours.
Adam Smith , in his book The Wealth of Nations using an argument first put forward by his friend and contemporary David Hume , states that in the long run it is in the best interests of society as a whole and the civil magistrate government in particular to allow people to freely choose their own religion, as it helps prevent civil unrest and reduces intolerance. It is this free competition amongst religious sects for converts that ensures stability and tranquillity in the long run.
Smith also points out that laws that prevent religious freedom and seek to preserve the power and belief in a particular religion will, in the long run, only serve to weaken and corrupt that religion, as its leaders and preachers become complacent, disconnected and unpractised in their ability to seek and win over new converts: The interested and active zeal of religious teachers can be dangerous and troublesome only where there is either but one sect tolerated in the society, or where the whole of a large society is divided into two or three great sects; the teachers of each acting by concert, and under a regular discipline and subordination.
But that zeal must be altogether innocent, where the society is divided into two or three hundred, or, perhaps, into as many thousand small sects, of which no one could be considerable enough to disturb the public tranquillity. The teachers of each sect, seeing themselves surrounded on all sides with more adversaries than friends, would be obliged to learn that candour and moderation which are so seldom to be found among the teachers of those great sects.
Hinduism is one of the more broad-minded religions when it comes to religious freedom. Hindus believe in different ways to preach attainment of God and religion as a philosophy and hence respect all religions as equal. One of the famous Hindu sayings about religion is: However, Judaism also exists in many forms as a civilization, possessing characteristics known as peoplehood, rather than strictly as a religion.
However, these laws are not adhered to anymore as Jews have usually lived among a multi-religious community. After the conquest of the Kingdoms of Israel and Judea by the Roman Empire, a Jewish state did not exist until with the establishment of the State of Israel. For over years Jewish people lived under pagan, Christian, Muslim, etc. As such Jewish people in some of these states faced persecution.
In the Middle East, Jews were categorised as dhimmi, non- Muslims permitted to live within a Muslim state. Even though given rights within a Muslim state, a dhimmi is still not equal to a Muslim within Muslim society, the same way non-Jewish Israeli citizens are not equal with Jewish citizens in modern-day Israel. Possibly because of this history of long term persecution, Jews in modernity have been among the most active proponents of religious freedom in the US and abroad and have founded and supported anti-hate institutions, including the Anti-Defamation League, the Southern Poverty Law Center and the American Civil Liberties Union.
Jews are very active in supporting Muslim and other religious groups in the US against discrimination and hate crimes and most Jewish congregations throughout the US and many individual Jews participate in interfaith community projects and programs.
While the Israel Declaration of Independence stresses religious freedom as a fundamental principle, in practice the current [ timeframe? However, as a nation state, Israel is very open towards other religions and religious practices, including public Muslim call to prayer chants and Christian prayer bells ringing in Jerusalem. Israel has been evaluated in research by the Pew organization as having "high" government restrictions on religion.
The government recognizes only Orthodox Judaism in certain matters of personal status, and marriages can only be performed by religious authorities. The government provides the greatest funding to Orthodox Judaism, even though adherents represent a minority of citizens.
Women of the Wall have organized to promote religious freedom at the Wall. Rabbi Joel Levy, director of the Conservative Yeshiva in Jerusalem, said that he had submitted the request on behalf of the students and saw their shock when the request was denied.
According to the Catholic Church in the Vatican II document on religious freedom, Dignitatis Humanae , "the human person has a right to religious freedom", which is described as "immunity from coercion in civil society".
The Syllabus was made up of phrases and paraphrases from earlier papal documents, along with index references to them, and presented as a list of "condemned propositions".
It does not explain why each particular proposition is wrong, but it cites earlier documents to which the reader can refer for the Pope's reasons for saying each proposition is false.
Among the statements included in the Syllabus are: Some Orthodox Christians, especially those living in democratic countries, support religious freedom for all, as evidenced by the position of the Ecumenical Patriarchate. Many Protestant Christian churches, including some Baptists , Churches of Christ , Seventh-day Adventist Church and main line churches have a commitment to religious freedoms.
However others, such as African scholar Makau Mutua , have argued that Christian insistence on the propagation of their faith to native cultures as an element of religious freedom has resulted in a corresponding denial of religious freedom to native traditions and led to their destruction.
As he states in the book produced by the Oslo Coalition on Freedom of Religion or Belief, "Imperial religions have necessarily violated individual conscience and the communal expressions of Africans and their communities by subverting African religions. In their book Breaking India , Rajiv Malhotra and Aravindan Neelakandan discussed the "US Church" funding activities in India, such as the popularly advertised campaigns to "save" poor children by feeding, clothing, and educating them, with the book arguing that the funds collected were being used not so much for the purposes indicated to sponsors, but for indoctrination and conversion activities.
They suggest that this nexus of players includes not only church groups, government bodies, and related organizations, but also private think tanks and academics.
Joel Spring has written about the Christianization of the Roman Empire:. Christianity added new impetus to the expansion of empire. Increasing the arrogance of the imperial project, Christians insisted that the Gospels and the Church were the only valid sources of religious beliefs.
Imperialists could claim that they were both civilizing the world and spreading the true religion. By the 5th century, Christianity was thought of as co-extensive with the Imperium romanum. This meant that to be human, as opposed to being a natural slave, was to be "civilized" and Christian. Conversion to Islam is simple, but Muslims are forbidden to convert from Islam to another religion. Certain Muslim-majority countries are known for their restrictions on religious freedom, highly favoring Muslim citizens over non-Muslim citizens.
Other countries [ who? Even other Muslim-majority countries are secular and thus do not regulate religious belief. Thus, this supports the argument against the execution of apostates in Islam. However, on the other hand, some Muslims support the practice of executing apostates who leave Islam, as in Bukhari: In Iran, the constitution recognizes four religions whose status is formally protected: Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
Among the most contentious areas of religious freedom is the right of an individual to change or abandon his or her own religion apostasy , and the right to evangelize individuals seeking to convince others to make such a change.
Other debates have centered around restricting certain kinds of missionary activity by religions. Many Islamic states, and others such as China, severely restrict missionary activities of other religions.
Greece, among European countries, has generally looked unfavorably on missionary activities of denominations others than the majority church and proselytizing is constitutionally prohibited.
A different kind of critique of the freedom to propagate religion has come from non-Abrahamic traditions such as the African and Indian. African scholar Makau Mutua criticizes religious evangelism on the ground of cultural annihilation by what he calls "proselytizing universalist faiths" Chapter Proselytism and Cultural Integrity, p.
Some Indian scholars  have similarly argued that the right to propagate religion is not culturally or religiously neutral. In Sri Lanka, there have been debates regarding a bill on religious freedom that seeks to protect indigenous religious traditions from certain kinds of missionary activities.
Debates have also occurred in various states of India regarding similar laws, particularly those that restrict conversions using force, fraud or allurement. In , Christian Solidarity Worldwide , a Christian human rights non-governmental organisation which specializes in religious freedom, launched an in-depth report on the human rights abuses faced by individuals who leave Islam for another religion.
The report is the product of a year long research project in six different countries. It calls on Muslim nations, the international community, the UN and the international media to resolutely address the serious violations of human rights suffered by apostates. In Islam, apostasy is called " ridda " "turning back" and is considered to be a profound insult to God. A person born of Muslim parents that rejects Islam is called a " murtad fitri " natural apostate , and a person that converted to Islam and later rejects the religion is called a " murtad milli " apostate from the community.
In Islamic law Sharia , the consensus view is that a male apostate must be put to death unless he suffers from a mental disorder or converted under duress, for example, due to an imminent danger of being killed. A female apostate must be either executed, according to Shafi'i , Maliki , and Hanbali schools of Sunni Islamic jurisprudence fiqh , or imprisoned until she reverts to Islam as advocated by the Sunni Hanafi school and by Shi'a scholars.
Ideally, the one performing the execution of an apostate must be an imam. However, while almost all scholars agree about the punishment, many disagree on the allowable time to retract the apostasy. Rahman, a former Chief Justice of Pakistan, argues that there is no indication of the death penalty for apostasy in the Qur'an. Religious practice may also conflict with secular law, creating debates on religious freedom.
For instance, even though polygamy is permitted in Islam, it is prohibited in secular law in many countries. This raises the question of whether prohibiting the practice infringes on the beliefs of certain Muslims.
The US and India, both constitutionally secular nations, have taken two different views of this. In the US, polygamy is prohibited for all.
This was a major source of conflict between the early LDS Church and the United States until the Church amended its position on practicing polygamy. Similar issues have also arisen in the context of the religious use of psychedelic substances by Native American tribes in the United States as well as other Native practices.
Traynor neatly summarized the American position on how freedom of religion cannot imply freedom from law: City of Hialeah in upheld the right of Santeria adherents to practice ritual animal sacrifice , with Justice Anthony Kennedy stating in the decision: Hodges legalizing Same-sex marriage in the United States.
When she refused to issue marriage licenses, she became embroiled in the Miller v. Her actions caused attorney and author Roberta Kaplan to state that "Kim Davis is the clearest example of someone who wants to use a religious liberty argument to discriminate. In , the case of Engele v. Vitale went to court over the violation of the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment resulting from a mandatory nondenominational prayer in New York public schools. The Supreme Court ruled in opposition to the state.
Edward Schempp sued the school district in Abington over the Pennsylvania law which required students to hear and sometimes read portions of the bible for their daily education.
The court ruled in favor of Schempp and the Pennsylvania law was overturned. In , the Supreme Court ruled on the case of Epperson v. Susan Epperson, a high school teacher in Arkansas sued over a violation of religious freedom. The state had a law banning the teaching of evolution and the school Epperson worked for had provided curriculum which contained evolutionary theory.
Epperson had to choose between violating the law or losing her job. The Supreme Court ruled to overturn the Arkansas law because it was unconstitutional. The law in Germany provides the term of "religious majority" Religiöse Mündigkeit with a minimum age for minors to follow their own religious beliefs even if their parents don't share those or don't approve.
Children 14 and older have the unrestricted right to enter or exit any religious community. Children 12 and older cannot be compelled to change to a different belief. Children 10 and older have to be heard before their parents change their religious upbringing to a different belief.
In its annual report, the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom designated fourteen nations as "countries of particular concern". The commission chairman commented that these are nations whose conduct marks them as the world's worst religious freedom violators and human rights abusers. There are concerns about the restrictions on public religious dress in some European countries including the Hijab , Kippah , and Christian cross.
The Pew Research Center has performed studies on international religious freedom between and , compiling global data from 16 governmental and non-governmental organizations—including the United Nations, the United States State Department , and Human Rights Watch —and representing over Social hostilities were classified by the level of communal violence and religion-related terrorism.
While most countries provided for the protection of religious freedom in their constitutions or laws, only a quarter of those countries were found to fully respect these legal rights in practice. In 75 countries governments limit the efforts of religious groups to proselytise and in countries religious groups must register with the government. The countries in North and South America reportedly had some of the lowest levels of government and social restrictions on religion, while The Middle East and North Africa were the regions with the highest.
Saudi Arabia, Pakistan and Iran were the countries that top the list of countries with the overall highest levels of restriction on religion. Vietnam and China were classified as having high government restrictions on religion but were in the moderate or low range when it came to social hostilities. Nigeria, Bangladesh and India were high in social hostilities but moderate in terms of government actions. Restrictions on religion across the world increased between mid and mid, according to a study by the Pew Research Center.
Restrictions in each of the five major regions of the world increased—including in the Americas and sub-Saharan Africa, the two regions where overall restrictions previously had been declining. In , Egypt, Nigeria, the Palestinian territories, Russia, and Yemen were added to the "very high" category of social hostilities.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the painting, see Freedom to Worship painting. For exemptions to anti-discrimination policy often known as "religious liberty" or "conscience protection", see Religious freedom bill. Religious discrimination Separation of church and state. This section possibly contains inappropriate or misinterpreted citations that do not verify the text. Please help improve this article by checking for citation inaccuracies.
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Oxford University Press , , p. The only privilege that was reserved for the Muslims was the seat of the caliphate, and this, because of certain religious functions attached to it, which could not naturally be discharged by a non-Muslim.
The Qur'an and Other Religions , p. Wrestling Islam from the Extremists. According the dhimma status system, non-Muslims must pay a poll tax in return for Muslim protection and the privilege of living in Muslim territory. Per this system, non-Muslims are exempt from military service, but they are excluded from occupying high positions that involve dealing with high state interests, like being the president or prime minister of the country. In Islamic history, non-Muslims did occupy high positions, especially in matters that related to fiscal policies or tax collection.
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