Dysautonomia - Autonomic Nervous System Dysfunction

Knowledge Base

Autonomic nervous system
Therefore, it is different from its predecessors of Cartesian dualism advocating independent mental and physical substances and Skinnerian behaviorism and physicalism declaring only physical substances because it is only concerned with the effective functions of the brain, through its organization or its " software programs ". Follow the instructions from Advanced Nutrients to provide the right amount of nutrition. Additionally, they are an integral part of neuroendocrine function. Any suggestions will be greatly appreciated. They are vital to overall mental and physical well-being.

Conditions Related to Dysautonomia

Pollution of the Ocean by Sewage, Nutrients, and Chemicals

The thyroid gland holds more selenium than any other organ in the body. Selenium is used to produce selenoproteins - antioxidant enzymes that are needed for adequate thyroid function.

It is required for the production of thyroid hormones, and the conversion of the inactive thyroid hormone T4 , into its active form T3 , to be utilised in the body. It is interesting to note that the T3 hormone is 10 times more active than T4. This important mineral is required for the production of T3 and T4 thyroid hormones.

A deficiency of iodine may inhibit the production of these thyroid hormones and could affect thyroid function. Fucus vesiculosus- a type of kelp, has been used in our Thyroid Health capsules to provide a natural source of iodine. Vitamin D plays a significant role in regulating and strengthening the immune system. Deficiencies of vitamin D associated with an increased risk of autoimmune disorders. This nutrient works well with parathyroid hormones to help support healthy blood calcium levels and strong bones.

This mineral also plays an important role in supporting healthy thyroid function. Cranial nerve ganglia originated in the CNS. However, the remaining ten cranial nerve axons extend beyond the brain and are therefore considered part of the PNS.

The autonomic nervous system is an involuntary control of smooth muscle and glands. The connection between CNS and organs allows the system to be in two different functional states: Parasympathetic Nervous System is one of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the sympathetic nervous system. Sympathetic Nervous System is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.

Sensory Nervous System Enteric Nervous System is one of the main divisions of the nervous system and consists of a mesh-like system of neurons that governs the function of the gastrointestinal system.

It is now usually referred to as separate from the autonomic nervous system since it has its own independent reflex activity. Neuroanatomy is the study of the anatomy and stereotyped organization of nervous systems. Electrophysiology is the study of the electrical properties of biological cells and tissues. It involves measurements of voltage change or electric current on a wide variety of scales from single ion channel proteins to whole organs like the heart.

Neurotoxins are toxins that are poisonous or destructive to nerve tissue causing neurotoxicity. Neurotoxins are an extensive class of exogenous chemical neurological insults that can adversely affect function in both developing and mature nervous tissue. Brain and Body youtube Blood Brain Barrier is a highly selective permeability barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain extracellular fluid in the central nervous system CNS.

The blood—brain barrier is formed by brain endothelial cells, which are connected by tight junctions with an extremely high electrical resistivity of at least 0. The blood—brain barrier allows the passage of water, some gases, and lipid-soluble molecules by passive diffusion, as well as the selective transport of molecules such as glucose and amino acids that are crucial to neural function.

On the other hand, the blood—brain barrier may prevent the entry of lipophilic , potential neurotoxins by way of an active transport mechanism mediated by P-glycoprotein.

Astrocytes are necessary to create the blood—brain barrier. A small number of regions in the brain, including the circumventricular organs CVOs , do not have a blood—brain barrier. The main functions of this barrier , namely maintenance of brain homeostasis, regulation of influx and efflux transport, and protection from harm, are determined by its specialized multicellular structure.

But, if one member of the BBB fails and as a result, the barrier breaks down, there can be dramatic consequences, and neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration can occur. Alzheimer's - Disruption in the Blood-Brain Barrier: It is produced in the choroid plexuses of the ventricles of the brain, and absorbed in the arachnoid granulations.

CSF acts as a cushion or buffer for the brain, providing basic mechanical and immunological protection to the brain inside the skull. The CSF also serves a vital function in cerebral autoregulation of cerebral blood flow. The CSF occupies the subarachnoid space between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater and the ventricular system around and inside the brain and spinal cord.

It fills the ventricles of the brain, cisterns , and sulci , as well as the central canal of the spinal cord. There is also a connection from the subarachnoid space to the bony labyrinth of the inner ear via the perilymphatic duct where the perilymph is continuous with the cerebrospinal fluid.

A sample of CSF can be taken via lumbar puncture. This can reveal the intracranial pressure , as well as indicate diseases including infections of the brain or its surrounding meninges. Although noted by Hippocrates , it was only in the eighteenth century that Emanuel Swedenborg is credited with its rediscovery, and as late as that Harvey W. Cushing demonstrated CSF was secreted by the choroid plexus.

Lymphatic System Circumventricular Organs are structures in the brain characterized by their extensive vasculature and highly permeable capillaries unlike those in the rest of the brain where there exists a blood brain barrier BBB.

The CVOs allow for the linkage between the central nervous system and peripheral blood. Additionally, they are an integral part of neuroendocrine function. The highly permeable capillaries allow the CVOs to act as an alternative route for peptides and hormones in the neural tissue to sample from and secrete to circulating blood. CVOs also have roles in body fluid regulation , cardiovascular functions, immune responses , thirst, feeding behavior and reproductive behavior.

CVOs can be classified as either sensory or secretory organs serving homeostatic functions and body water balance. The sensory organs include the area postrema AP , the subfornical organ SFO and the vascular organ of lamina terminalis, all having the ability to sense signals in blood, then pass that information neurally to other brain regions.

Through their neural connections, they provide direct information to the autonomic nervous system from the systemic circulation. The secretory organs include the subcommissural organ SCO , the neural lobe of the pituitary gland, the intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland, the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, the median eminence, and the pineal gland.

These organs are responsible for secreting hormones and glycoproteins into the peripheral blood using feedback from both the brain environment and external stimuli. All of the circumventricular organs, except the subcommissural organ, contain extensive vasculature and permeable capillaries which define a sensory and secretory system within the brain.

Furthermore, all CVOs contain neural tissue, enabling a neuroendocrine role. The choroid plexus, having permeable capillaries, does not contain neural tissue, but rather its primary role is to produce cerebrospinal fluid CSF , and so is typically excluded from classification as a CVO. Endothelium is a type of epithelium that lines the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels , forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. It is a thin layer of simple squamous cells called endothelial cells.

Endothelial cells in direct contact with blood are called vascular endothelial cells, whereas those in direct contact with lymph are known as lymphatic endothelial cells. The Brain rids itself of waste products. Other organs in the body achieve this via a system called the lymphatic system. A network of lymphatic vessels extends throughout the body in a pattern similar to that of blood vessels. Blood vessels then carry the waste products to the kidneys , which filter them out for excretion.

Lymphatic vessels are also a highway for circulation of white blood cells, which fight infections, and are therefore an important part of the immune system. Developmental Neuroscience describes the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which complex nervous systems emerge during embryonic development and throughout life.

Neuropsychology studies the structure and function of the brain as they relate to specific psychological processes and behaviors. It is an experimental field of psychology that aims to understand how behavior and cognition are influenced by brain functioning and is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of behavioral and cognitive effects of neurological disorders.

Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system. Neurologist is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.

Neurology deals with the diagnosis and treatment of all categories of conditions and disease involving the central and peripheral nervous system and its subdivisions, the autonomic nervous system and the somatic nervous system ; including their coverings, blood vessels, and all effector tissue, such as muscle.

Neurological practice relies heavily on the field of neuroscience, which is the scientific study of the nervous system. A neurologist is a physician specializing in neurology and trained to investigate, or diagnose and treat neurological disorders.

Neurologists may also be involved in clinical research, clinical trials, and basic or translational research. While neurology is a non-surgical specialty, its corresponding surgical specialty is neurosurgery. There is significant overlap between the fields of neurology and psychiatry, with the boundary between the two disciplines and the conditions they treat being somewhat nebulous.

Neuropathology is the study of disease of nervous system tissue, usually in the form of either small surgical biopsies or whole-body autopsies. Neuropathology is a subspecialty of anatomic pathology, neurology, and neurosurgery.

It should not be confused with neuropathy, which refers to disorders of the nerves themselves usually in the peripheral nervous system. Neurophysiology is a branch of physiology and neuroscience that is concerned with the study of the functioning of the nervous system. Clinical Neurophysiology is a medical specialty that studies the central and peripheral nervous systems through the recording of bioelectrical activity, whether spontaneous or stimulated.

Cognitive Neuropsychology is a branch of cognitive psychology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relates to specific psychological processes. Cognitive psychology is the science that looks at how the brain's mental processes are responsible for our cognitive abilities to store and produce new memories , produce language , recognize people and objects, as well as our ability to reason and problem solve. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry is a growing multidisciplinary field arising out of cognitive psychology and neuropsychiatry that aims to understand mental illness and psychopathology in terms of models of normal psychological function.

Neurocognitive functions are cognitive functions closely linked to the function of particular areas, neural pathways, or cortical networks in the brain substrate layers of neurological matrix at the cellular molecular level.

Therefore, their understanding is closely linked to the practice of neuropsychology and cognitive neuroscience, two disciplines that broadly seek to understand how the structure and function of the brain relates to perception defragmentation of concepts, memory embed, association and recall both in the thought process and behavior.

Neurotechnology is any technology that has a fundamental influence on how people understand the brain and various aspects of consciousness, thought, and higher order activities in the brain. It also includes technologies that are designed to improve and repair brain function and allow researchers and clinicians to visualize the brain.

Peripheral Neuropathy is damage to or disease affecting nerves, which may impair sensation, movement, gland or organ function, or other aspects of health, depending on the type of nerve affected.

Common causes include systemic diseases such as diabetes or leprosy , vitamin deficiency, medication e. Cognitive Science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the Mind and its Processes. It examines the nature, the tasks, and the functions of cognition. Cognitive scientists study intelligence and behavior , with a focus on how nervous systems represent, process, and transform information. Mental faculties of concern to cognitive scientists include language , perception , memory , attention , reasoning , and emotion ; to understand these faculties, cognitive scientists borrow from fields such as linguistics , psychology , artificial intelligence , philosophy , neuroscience , and anthropology.

The typical analysis of cognitive science span many levels of organization, from learning and decision to logic and planning ; from neural circuitry to modular brain organization. The fundamental concept of cognitive science is that "thinking can best be understood in terms of representational structures in the mind and computational procedures that operate on those structures.

Cognitive Neuroscience the scientific study of the biological processes and aspects that underlie cognition, with a specific focus on the neural connections in the brain which are involved in mental processes. Cognitive neuroscience is a branch of both psychology and neuroscience, overlapping with disciplines such as physiological psychology, cognitive psychology, and neuropsychology.

Cognitive neuroscience relies upon theories in cognitive science coupled with evidence from neuropsychology, and computational modeling. Cognitivism is a theoretical framework for understanding the mind. These signals between neurons occur via synapses, specialized connections with other cells. Neurons can connect to each other to form neural networks. Neurons are the core components of the brain and spinal cord of the central nervous system CNS , and of the ganglia of the peripheral nervous system PNS.

Trans-Synaptic Nanocolumn youtube video animation - Neuron Cell Diagram Image Neural Development refers to the processes that generate, shape, and reshape the nervous system of animals, from the earliest stages of embryogenesis to adulthood. Neurochemistry is the study of neurochemicals, including neurotransmitters and other molecules such as psychopharmaceuticals and neuropeptides, that influence the function of neurons. Neurochemical is an organic molecule, such as serotonin, dopamine , or nerve growth factor, that participates in neural activity.

The science of neurochemistry studies the functions of neurochemicals. Neural Network - Artificial Neural Network When neurons die, their debris needs to be quickly removed in order for the surrounding brain tissue to continue to function properly.

Monoamine Neurotransmitter are neurotransmitters and neuromodulators that contain one amino group that is connected to an aromatic ring by a two-carbon chain -CH2-CH All monoamines are derived from aromatic amino acids like phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, and the thyroid hormones by the action of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase enzymes. It has been found that monoamine Neurotransmitters play an important role in the secretion and production of neurotrophin-3 by astrocytes, a chemical which maintains neuron integrity and provides neurons with trophic support.

Drugs used to increase or reduce the effect of monoamine are sometimes used to treat patients with psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. Neurotransmitter - Neuromodulation Synapse is a structure that permits a neuron or nerve cell to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron.

Communication from a neuron to any other cell type, such as to a motor cell , although such non-neuronal contacts may be referred to as junctions a historically older term.

Excitatory Synapse is a synapse in which an action potential in a presynaptic neuron increases the probability of an action potential occurring in a postsynaptic cell. Neurons form networks through which nerve impulses travel, each neuron often making numerous connections with other cells. These electrical signals may be excitatory or inhibitory, and, if the total of excitatory influences exceeds that of the inhibitory influences , the neuron will generate a new action potential at its axon hillock, thus transmitting the information to yet another cell.

Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential is a postsynaptic potential that makes the post synaptic neuron more likely to fire an action potential. This temporary depolarization of postsynaptic membrane potential, caused by the flow of positively charged ions into the postsynaptic cell, is a result of opening ligand-gated ion channels.

Summation in neurophysiology is the process that determines whether or not an action potential will be triggered by the combined effects of excitatory and inhibitory signals, both from multiple simultaneous inputs spatial summation , and from repeated inputs temporal summation.

Depending on the sum total of many individual inputs, summation may or may not reach the threshold voltage to trigger an action potential. Chemical Synapse are biological junctions through which neurons signal can be exchanged to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands. Chemical synapses allow neurons to form circuits within the central nervous system. They are crucial to the biological computations that underlie perception and thought. They allow the nervous system to connect to and control other systems of the body.

Axon is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses away from the neuron's cell body. Myelinated axons are known as nerve fibers. The function of the axon is to transmit information to different neurons, muscles and glands. Axon Terminal Dendrite are the branched projections of a neuron that act to propagate the electrochemical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body, or soma, of the neuron from which the dendrites project.

Electrical stimulation is transmitted onto dendrites by upstream neurons usually their axons via synapses which are located at various points throughout the dendritic tree. Dendrites play a critical role in integrating these synaptic inputs and in determining the extent to which action potentials are produced by the neuron. Apical Dendrite is a dendrite that emerges from the apex of a pyramidal cell. Basal Dendrite is a dendrite that emerges from the base of a pyramidal cell that receives information from nearby neurons and passes it to the soma, or cell body.

Pyramidal Cell are a type of multipolar neuron found in areas of the brain including the cerebral cortex , the hippocampus, and the amygdala.

Pyramidal neurons are the primary excitation units of the mammalian prefrontal cortex and the corticospinal tract. Pyramidal neurons are also one of two cell types where the characteristic sign, Negri bodies, are found in post-mortem rabies infection.

Pyramidal neurons were first discovered and studied by Santiago Ramón y Cajal. Since then, studies on pyramidal neurons have focused on topics ranging from neuroplasticity to cognition. Soma is the bulbous end of a neuron, containing the cell nucleus. Biologically, these channels act to set or reset the resting potential in many cells. In excitable cells, such as neurons, the delayed counterflow of potassium ions shapes the action potential. Ion is an Atom or a Molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving the atom or molecule a net positive or negative electrical charge.

Ions can be created, by either chemical or physical means, via ionization. Neural Coding is a neuroscience related field concerned with characterizing the relationship between the stimulus and the individual or ensemble neuronal responses and the relationship among the electrical activity of the neurons in the ensemble.

Based on the theory that sensory and other information is represented in the brain by networks of neurons, it is thought that neurons can encode both digital and analog information. Interneuron is one of the three classifications of neurons found in the human body.

Interneurons create neural circuits, enabling communication between sensory or motor neurons and the central nervous system CNS. They have been found to function in reflexes, neuronal oscillations, and neurogenesis in the adult mammalian brain.

Interneurons can be further broken down into two groups: Local interneurons have short axons and form circuits with nearby neurons to analyze small pieces of information. Relay interneurons have long axons and connect circuits of neurons in one region of the brain with those in other regions. The interaction between interneurons allow the brain to perform complex functions such as learning, and decision-making. Unlike the peripheral nervous system PNS , the central nervous system, including the brain, contains many interneurons.

However, excitatory interneurons using glutamate in the CNS also exist, as do interneurons releasing neuromodulators like acetylcholine. Investigations into the molecular diversity of neurons is impeded by the inability to isolate cell populations born at different times for gene expression analysis. An effective means of identifying coetaneous interneurons is neuronal birthdating.

This can be achieved using nucleoside analogs such as EdU , which is a thymidine analogue which is incorporated into the DNA of dividing cells.

Interneuron is also called relay neuron, association neuron, connector neuron, intermediate neuron or local circuit neuron. Spinal Interneuron is an interneuron found in the spinal cord that relays signals between afferent neurons and efferent neurons.

Different classes of spinal interneurons are involved in the process of sensory-motor integration. Most interneurons are found in the grey column, a region of grey matter in the spinal cord. Spindle Neuron Myelin is a fatty white substance that surrounds the axon of some nerve cells, forming an electrically insulating layer. It is essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system. It is an outgrowth of a type of Glial Cell or Neuroglia, Neuroglia also called Glial Cells or simply glia, are non-neuronal cells in the central nervous system brain and spinal cord and the peripheral nervous system.

They maintain homeostasis , form myelin, and provide support and protection for neurons. In the central nervous system, glial cells include Oligodendrocytes , astrocytes, ependymal cells and microglia, and in the peripheral nervous systems glial cells include Schwann cells and satellite cells.

They have four main functions: They also play a role in neurotransmission and synaptic connections, and in physiological processes like breathing. Myelin Sheath Gap are periodic gaps in the insulating myelin sheaths of myelinated axons where the axonal membrane is exposed to the extracellular space.

Myelinogenesis is generally the proliferation of myelin sheaths throughout the nervous system, and specifically the progressive myelination of nerve axon fibers in the central nervous system. This is a non-simultaneous process that occurs primarily postnatally in mammalian species, beginning in the embryo during the midst of early development and finishing after birth.

Myelination Learning Myelin Basic Protein is a protein believed to be important in the process of myelination of nerves in the nervous system. The myelin sheath is a multi-layered membrane, unique to the nervous system, that functions as an insulator to greatly increase the velocity of axonal impulse conduction.

MBP maintains the correct structure of myelin, interacting with the lipids in the myelin membrane. Oligodendrocyte are a type of neuroglia.

Their main functions are to provide support and insulation to axons in the central nervous system of some vertebrates, equivalent to the function performed by Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system.

Each oligodendrocyte forms one segment of myelin for several adjacent axons. Schwann Cell are the principal glia of the peripheral nervous system PNS.

Glial cells function to support neurons and in the PNS, also include satellite cells, olfactory ensheathing cells, enteric glia and glia that reside at sensory nerve endings, such as the Pacinian corpuscle.

There are two types of Schwann cell, myelinating and nonmyelinating. Myelinating Schwann cells wrap around axons of motor and sensory neurons to form the myelin sheath. The Schwann cell promoter is present in the Downstream region of the Human Dystrophin Gene that gives shortened transcript that are again synthesized in a tissue specific manner. New kinds of brain cells revealed. Salk and UC San Diego scientists analyzed methylation patterns of neurons to find new subtypes.

Methylome is the set of nucleic acid methylation modifications in an organism's genome or in a particular cell. We describe convergent evidence from transcriptomics, morphology, and physiology for a specialized GABAergic neuron subtype in human cortex. Rosehip cells in layer 1 make homotypic gap junctions, predominantly target apical dendritic shafts of layer 3 pyramidal neurons, and inhibit backpropagating pyramidal action potentials in microdomains of the dendritic tuft.

These cells are therefore positioned for potent local control of distal dendritic computation in cortical pyramidal neurons. Claustrum is a sheet of neurons that is attached to the underside of the neocortex in the center of the brain.

Contains a great deal of longitudinal connections between its neurons that could serve to synchronize the entire anterior-posterior extent of the claustrum. Major neuromodulators in the central nervous system include dopamine , serotonin, acetylcholine, histamine, and norepinephrine.

Neurotransmission also called synaptic transmission, is the process by which signaling molecules called neurotransmitters are released by a neuron the presynaptic neuron , and bind to and activate the receptors of another neuron the postsynaptic neuron.

Neurotransmission is essential for the process of communication between two neurons. Synaptic transmission relies on: Information is carried from one cell to the other by neurotransmitters such as glutamate, dopamine, and serotonin, which activate receptors on the receiving neuron to convey excitatory or inhibitory messages.

Neuropeptide are small protein-like molecules peptides used by neurons to communicate with each other. Neurotransmitter also known as chemical messengers , are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.

They transmit signals across a chemical synapse, such as a neuromuscular junction, from one neuron nerve cell to another "target" neuron, muscle cell, or gland cell. Neurotransmitters are released from synaptic vesicles in synapses into the synaptic cleft, where they are received by receptors on the target cells.

Many neurotransmitters are synthesized from simple and plentiful precursors such as amino acids, which are readily available from the diet and only require a small number of biosynthetic steps for conversion. Neurotransmitters play a major role in shaping everyday life and functions.

Their exact numbers are unknown, but more than chemical messengers have been uniquely identified. Signal Transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalysed by protein kinases , which ultimately results in a cellular response.

Proteins responsible for detecting stimuli are generally termed receptors, although in some cases the term sensor is used. The changes elicited by ligand binding or signal sensing in a receptor give rise to a signaling cascade, which is a chain of biochemical events along a signaling pathway. When signaling pathways interact with one another they form networks, which allow cellular responses to be coordinated, often by combinatorial signaling events. At the molecular level, such responses include changes in the transcription or translation of genes, and post-translational and conformational changes in proteins, as well as changes in their location.

These molecular events are the basic mechanisms controlling cell growth, proliferation, metabolism and many other processes. In multicellular organisms, signal transduction pathways have evolved to regulate cell communication in a wide variety of ways.

Each component or node of a signaling pathway is classified according to the role it plays with respect to the initial stimulus. Ligands are termed first messengers, while receptors are the signal transducers, which then activate primary effectors.

Such effectors are often linked to second messengers, which can activate secondary effectors, and so on. Depending on the efficiency of the nodes, a signal can be amplified a concept known as signal gain , so that one signaling molecule can generate a response involving hundreds to millions of molecules. As with other signals, the transduction of biological signals is characterised by delay, noise, signal feedback and feedforward and interference, which can range from negligible to pathological.

With the advent of computational biology, the analysis of signaling pathways and networks has become an essential tool to understand cellular functions and disease, including signaling rewiring mechanisms underlying responses to acquired drug resistance. Neurons in the brain can carry two signals at once.

Using a strategy similar to multiplexing in telecommunications. The results may explain how the brain processes complex information from the world around us, and may also provide insight into some of our perceptual and cognitive limitations. Adenosine plays an important role in biochemical processes, such as energy transfer as well as in signal transduction.

It is also a neuromodulator, believed to play a role in promoting sleep and suppressing arousal. Adenosine also plays a role in regulation of blood flow to various organs through vasodilation. Neuromuscular Junction is a chemical synapse formed by the contact between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber. It is at the neuromuscular junction that a motor neuron is able to transmit a signal to the muscle fiber, causing muscle contraction.

Its name is derived from its chemical structure: Parts in the body that use or are affected by acetylcholine are referred to as cholinergic. Substances that interfere with acetylcholine activity are called anticholinergics.

Acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter used at the neuromuscular junction—in other words, it is the chemical that motor neurons of the nervous system release in order to activate muscles.

This property means that drugs that affect cholinergic systems can have very dangerous effects ranging from paralysis to convulsions. Acetylcholine is also used as a neurotransmitter in the autonomic nervous system , both as an internal transmitter for the sympathetic nervous system and as the final product released by the parasympathetic nervous system. In the brain, acetylcholine functions as a neurotransmitter and as a neuromodulator. The brain contains a number of cholinergic areas, each with distinct functions.

They play an important role in arousal , attention , memory and motivation. Partly because of its muscle-activating function , but also because of its functions in the autonomic nervous system and brain, a large number of important drugs exert their effects by altering cholinergic transmission. Numerous venoms and toxins produced by plants, animals, and bacteria, as well as chemical nerve agents such as Sarin, cause harm by inactivating or hyperactivating muscles via their influences on the neuromuscular junction.

Drugs that act on muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, such as atropine, can be poisonous in large quantities, but in smaller doses they are commonly used to treat certain heart conditions and eye problems.

Scopolamine, which acts mainly on muscarinic receptors in the brain, can cause delirium and amnesia. The addictive qualities of nicotine are derived from its effects on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain. Acetylcholine as a Neuromodulator: Light Switch for Neurons youtube Sensory Neurons located in your fingertips perform mathematical calculations that provide us with geometric information about objects we touch.

Somatosensory System is a complex system of nerve cells that responds to changes to the surface or internal state of the body. Nerve cells called "sensory receptors" including thermoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, chemoreceptors and nociceptors send signals along a chain of nerve cells to the spinal cord where they may be processed by other nerve cells and then relayed to the brain for further processing.

Sensory receptors are found in many parts of the body including the skin, epithelial tissues, skeletal muscles, bones and joints, internal organs, and the cardiovascular system. Neural Oscillation is rhythmic or repetitive neural activity in the central nervous system. Neural tissue can generate oscillatory activity in many ways, driven either by mechanisms within individual neurons or by interactions between neurons.

In individual neurons, oscillations can appear either as oscillations in membrane potential or as rhythmic patterns of action potentials, which then produce oscillatory activation of post-synaptic neurons.

At the level of neural ensembles, synchronized activity of large numbers of neurons can give rise to macroscopic oscillations, which can be observed in an electroencephalogram. Oscillatory activity in groups of neurons generally arises from feedback connections between the neurons that result in the synchronization of their firing patterns. The interaction between neurons can give rise to oscillations at a different frequency than the firing frequency of individual neurons.

A well-known example of macroscopic neural oscillations is alpha activity. Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. Its principal role is reducing neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. In humans, GABA is also directly responsible for the regulation of muscle tone.

Glutamate Receptor are synaptic receptors located primarily on the membranes of neuronal cells. Glutamate the conjugate base of glutamic acid is abundant in the human body, but particularly in the nervous system and especially prominent in the human brain where it is the body's most prominent neurotransmitter, the brain's main excitatory neurotransmitter, and also the precursor for GABA, the brain's main inhibitory neurotransmitter.

Glutamate receptors are responsible for the glutamate-mediated postsynaptic excitation of neural cells, and are important for neural communication, memory formation, learning, and regulation. Glutamate as a neurotransmitter refers to the anion of glutamic acid in its role as a neurotransmitter: It is by a wide margin the most abundant neurotransmitter in the vertebrate nervous system. It also serves as the primary neurotransmitter for some localized brain regions, such as cerebellum granule cells.

Neuroendocrine Cell are cells that receive neuronal input neurotransmitters released by nerve cells or neurosecretory cells and, as a consequence of this input, release message molecules hormones to the blood. In this way they bring about an integration between the nervous system and the endocrine system, a process known as neuroendocrine integration. Identify neurons and understand the functional relationship between the soma and cell processes.

Distinguish between glial cells and neurons and know the different functions of these supporting glial cells. Identify and understand the connective tissue elements of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Brain Waves - Binaural Beats NeuroFeedback is a type of biofeedback that uses real-time displays of brain activity—most commonly electroencephalography EEG , to teach self-regulation of brain function. Typically, sensors are placed on the scalp to measure activity, with measurements displayed using video displays or sound.

Scientists think that some people are more "right-brained" or "left-brained" while others are more "whole-brained," meaning they use both halves of their brain to the same degree.

The outer layer of the cerebrum is called the cortex also known as "gray matter". Information collected by the five senses comes into the brain from the spinal cord to the cortex. This information is then directed to other parts of the nervous system for further processing. For example, when you touch the hot stove, not only does a message go out to move your hand but one also goes to another part of the brain to help you remember not to do that again.

In the inner part of the forebrain sit the thalamus , hypothalamus , and pituitary gland. The thalamus carries messages from the sensory organs like the eyes, ears, nose, and fingers to the cortex.

The hypothalamus controls body temperature, thirst, appetite, sleep patterns, and other processes in our bodies that happen automatically.

It also controls the pituitary gland, which makes the hormones that control our growth, metabolism, water and mineral balance, sexual maturity, and how we respond to stress. The midbrain, located underneath the middle of the forebrain, acts as a master coordinator for all the messages going in and out of the brain to the spinal cord. The hindbrain sits underneath the back end of the cerebrum, and it consists of the cerebellum, pons, and medulla.

The cerebellum — also called the "little brain" because it looks like a small version of the cerebrum — is responsible for balance, movement, and coordination. The pons and the medulla , along with the midbrain, are often called the brainstem. The brainstem takes in, sends out, and coordinates all of the brain's messages. It is also controls many of the body's automatic functions, like breathing, heart rate, blood pressure, swallowing, digestion, and blinking. The basic functioning of the nervous system depends a lot on tiny cells called neurons.

The brain has billions of them, and they have many specialized jobs. For example, sensory neurons take information from the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin to the brain. Motor neurons carry messages away from the brain and back to the rest of the body. All neurons relay information to each other through a complex electrochemical process, making connections that affect the way we think, learn, move, and behave.

When you learn things, messages travel from one neuron to another, over and over. Then the brain creates connections or pathways between the neurons, so things become easier and you can do them better and better. In young children, the brain is highly adaptable. In fact, when one part of a young child's brain is injured, another part may learn to take over some of the lost function. But as we age, the brain has to work harder to make new neural pathways, making it more difficult to master new tasks or change established behavior patterns.

That's why many scientists believe it's important to keep challenging your brain to learn new things and make new connections — it helps keep the brain active over the course of a lifetime. Memory is another complex function of the brain.

The things we've done, learned, and seen are first processed in the cortex, and then, if we sense that this information is important enough to remember permanently, it's passed inward to other regions of the brain such as the hippocampus and amygdala for long-term storage and retrieval. As these messages travel through the brain, they create pathways that serve as the basis of our memory. Different parts of the cerebrum are responsible for moving different body parts.

The left side of the brain controls the movements of the right side of the body, and the right side of the brain controls the movements of the left side of the body. When you kick a soccer ball with your right foot, for example, it's the left side of your brain that sends the message allowing you to do it.

A part of the peripheral nervous system called the autonomic nervous system is responsible for controlling many of the body processes we almost never need to think about, like breathing, digestion, sweating, and shivering.

The autonomic nervous system has two parts: The sympathetic nervous system prepares the body for sudden stress, like if you see a robbery taking place.

When something frightening happens, the sympathetic nervous system makes the heart beat faster so that it sends blood more quickly to the different body parts that might need it.

It also causes the adrenal glands at the top of the kidneys to release adrenaline, a hormone that helps give extra power to the muscles for a quick getaway. This process is known as the body's "fight or flight" response. The parasympathetic nervous system does the exact opposite:

Industrial Wastes