The issues with my legs really started to reveal themselves after this and right after puberty. Localized lymphadenitis affects the nodes near the infection, for example, as a result of tonsilitis. A division into Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas is used in several of the older classification systems. Are bruises ödeme common to both? The tonsils are the tissues affected by tonsillitis. I am due to go back to the rheumatology consultant because the PMR is now quite bad and I am very stiff and wanted to know about problems with steroids and if it is worth discussing treating the PMR with other medications instead?
Balance Disorders: Vertigo, Motion Sickness, Labyrinthitis, and More
EAE experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. G-CSF granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. MCAO middle cerebral artery occlusion. MRI magnetic resonance imaging. RAGE receptor for advanced glycation end products.
Transverse section of the spleen, showing the trabecular tissue and the splenic vein and its tributaries. Side of thorax, showing surface markings for bones, lungs purple , pleura blue , and spleen green. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Spleen disambiguation. This article uses anatomical terminology; for an overview, see Anatomical terminology.
It has been suggested that Red pulp be merged into this article. Discuss Proposed since March The human spleen is located in the upper left abdomen , behind the stomach. Back of lumbar region, showing surface markings for kidneys, ureters, and spleen. Dispensable but not irrelevant". Illustrated by Allison Burke. Journal of the American Medical Association. Harrison's principles of internal medicine. Kliewer 1 January American Journal of Roentgenology.
American Roentgen Ray Society. Cell and Tissue Research. What makes a Derby winner - Spleen acts as a 'natural blood doper,' scientist says". Information, Surgery and Functions". Childrens Hospital of Pittsburgh - Chp. Archived from the original on Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine. Journal of Sports Sciences. The Journal of Experimental Medicine. Clinically Oriented Anatomy 3rd ed. World Journal of Surgical Oncology.
Immune system Lymphatic system. Each of these conditions is discussed below. The anatomy of the ear can be a little confusing, especially since the ear is responsible not only for hearing, but also for balance. There are three components to the ear: All three are involved in hearing but only the inner ear is responsible for balance.
The outer ear is composed of the pinna, or ear lobe, and the external auditory canal. Both structures funnel sound waves towards the ear drum or tympanic membrane allowing it to vibrate.
The pinna is also responsible for protecting the ear drum from damage. Modified sweat glands in the ear canal form ear wax. The middle ear is an air filled space located in the temporal bone of the skull.
Air pressure is equalized in this space via the Eustachian tube which drains into the nasopharynx or the back of the throat and nose. There are three small bones, or ossicles, that are located adjacent to the tympanic membrane. The malleus, incus, and stapes are attached like a chain to the tympanic membrane and convert sound waves that vibrate the membrane into mechanical vibrations of the three bones.
The stapes fills the oval window which is the connection to the inner ear. What are the symptoms of a balance disorder? If your balance is impaired, you may feel as if the room is spinning. You may stagger when you try to walk or teeter or fall when you try to stand up. Some of the symptoms you might experience are:. Other symptoms are nausea and vomiting , diarrhea , changes in heart rate and blood pressure , and fear, anxiety , or panic. Some people also feel tired, depressed , or unable to concentrate.
Symptoms may come and go over short time periods or last for longer periods of time. What causes a balance disorder? A balance disorder may be caused by viral or bacterial infections in the ear, a head injury , or blood circulation disorders that affect the inner ear or brain.
Many people experience problems with their sense of balance as they get older. Balance problems and dizziness also can result from taking certain medications. In addition, problems in the visual and skeletal systems and the nervous and circulatory systems can be the source of some posture and balance problems.
A circulatory system disorder, such as low blood pressure , can lead to a feeling of dizziness when we suddenly stand up. Problems in the skeletal or visual systems, such as arthritis or eye muscle imbalance, also may cause balance problems. However, many balance disorders can begin all of a sudden and with no obvious cause. What are some types of balance disorders? Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo BPPV or positional vertigo is a brief, intense episode of vertigo that occurs because of a specific change in the position of the head.
If you have BPPV, you might feel as if you're spinning when you look for an object on a high or low shelf or turn your head to look over your shoulder such as when you back up your car.
You also may experience BPPV when you roll over in bed. BPPV is caused when otoconia tumble from the utricle into one of the semicircular canals and weigh on the cupula. The cupula can't tilt properly and sends conflicting messages to the brain about the position of the head, causing vertigo. BPPV sometimes may result from a head injury or just from getting older.
Labyrinthitis is an infection or inflammation of the inner ear that causes dizziness and loss of balance. It frequently is associated with an upper respiratory infection such as the flu. Ménière's disease is associated with a change in fluid volume within parts of the labyrinth.
Ménière's disease causes episodes of vertigo, irregular hearing loss , tinnitus a ringing or buzzing in the ear , and a feeling of fullness in the ear. The cause of this disease is unknown. Vestibular neuronitis is an inflammation of the vestibular nerve and may be caused by a virus. Its primary symptom is vertigo. Perilymph fistula is a leakage of inner ear fluid into the middle ear.
It can occur after a head injury, drastic changes in atmospheric pressure such as when scuba diving , physical exertion, ear surgery, or chronic ear infections.
Its most notable symptom, besides dizziness and nausea , is unsteadiness when walking or standing that increases with activity and decreases with rest. Some babies may be born with perilymph fistula, usually in association with hearing loss that is present at birth. Mal de debarquement syndrome MdDS is a balance disorder in which you feel as if you're continuously rocking or bobbing. It generally happens after an ocean cruise or other sea travel. Usually, the symptoms will go away in a matter of hours or days after you reach land.
However, severe cases can last months or even years. How is a balance disorder diagnosed? Diagnosis of a balance disorder is difficult. There are many potential causes - including medical conditions and medications. To help evaluate a balance problem, your doctor may suggest you see an otolaryngologist. An otolaryngologist is a physician and surgeon who specializes in the ear, nose, and throat.
An otolaryngologist may request tests to assess the cause and extent of the balance problem depending on your symptoms and health status. The otolaryngologist may request a hearing examination, blood tests, an electronystagmogram which measures eye movements and the muscles that control them , or imaging studies of your head and brain.
Another possible test is called posturography. For this test, you stand on a special movable platform in front of a patterned screen. The doctor measures how your body moves in response to movement of the platform, the patterned screen, or both.
How is a balance disorder treated? The first thing a doctor will do to treat a balance disorder is determine if your dizziness is caused by a medical condition or medication. If it is, your doctor will treat the condition or suggest a different medication. Your doctor also may describe ways for you to handle daily activities that increase the risk of falling and injury, such as driving, walking up or down stairs, and using the bathroom. If you have BPPV, your doctor might prescribe a series of simple movements, called the Epley maneuver, to help dislodge the otoconia from the semicircular canal.
You begin the Epley maneuver by sitting upright, with the help of a trained therapist, then quickly lie down on your back, turn your head to one side, and wait for a minute or two before sitting back up again see Figure 3. For some people, one session will be all that is needed. Others might need to repeat the procedure several times at home to relieve their dizziness. If you are diagnosed with Ménière's disease, your doctor may recommend changes in your diet , such as reducing the use of salt in your food and limiting alcohol and caffeine.
Not smoking also may help. Some anti-vertigo or anti-nausea medications may relieve your symptoms, but they can also make you drowsy. Other medications, such as the antibiotic gentamicin or corticosteroids , may be injected behind the eardrum to reach the inner ear.
Although gentamicin helps reduce dizziness, it occasionally destroys sensory cells in the cochlea and causes permanent hearing loss. The risk of hearing loss can be lowered if small doses of gentamicin are given off and on until your symptoms decrease.
Corticosteroids don't cause hearing loss; however, research is underway to determine if they are as effective as gentamicin. Surgery on the vestibular organ may be necessary if you have a severe case of Ménière's disease. Some people with a balance disorder may not be able to fully relieve their dizziness and will have to develop ways to cope with it on a daily basis.
A vestibular rehabilitation therapist can help by developing an individualized treatment plan that combines head, body, and eye exercises to decrease dizziness and nausea. To reduce your risk of injury from dizziness, avoid walking in the dark. You also should wear low-heeled shoes or walking shoes outdoors and use a cane or walker if necessary.