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Yellowing starts from tip to base of the lower leaves and will proceed up. As the deficiency progresses, younger leaves will also become discoloured. Older leaves are golden yellow colour. Growth virtually stops when N deficiency is severe and become shedding of leaves. Nitrogen deficiency is easily diagnosed by symptoms alone, although leaf nutrient analysis can also be helpful. Nitrogen deficiency can be confused with Fe or S deficiency, although the chlorosis in those deficiencies is typically most severe on the youngest leaves.
The reverse is true for N deficiency. Phosphorus Deficiency Symptoms of damage: Deficiency occurs in acid and alkaline soils. The growth, leaf size and leaf number reduced. The root growth is restricted if phosphorus deficiency is recorded. There are no clear visual symptoms of phosphorus deficiency other than stunting and decrease in yield. This deficiency common in wide range of soil Management: Boron B Deficiency Symptoms: Boron deficiency is caused by insufficient B in the soil.
It may be caused by soil drying and high soil pH, while temporary B deficiency is caused by heavy leaching. Boron deficiency symptoms are quite distinctive and are usually sufficient for diagnosis by themselves.
Manganese deficiency produces symptoms similar to those of B deficiency, but no other common deficiency produces symptoms that could be confused with those of B deficiency. Because B deficiency is so transient in nature, the element is immobile within the palm cannot move from one leaf to another , and deficiencies affect only leaf primordial developing within the bud area, leaf analysis is not particularly useful. Manganese deficiency is very common on alkaline soils, but can occur in containers if drainage is poor or soils temperatures are cool.
The newest leaves of Mn deficient palms emerge chlorotic with longitudinal necrotic streaks. As the deficiency progresses, newly emerging leaflets appear necrotic and withered on all but basal portions of the leaflets.
On new leaves of Mn-deficient palm, necrotic leaflet tips fall off and the leaf has a signed appearance. In severely Mn- deficient palms, growth stops and newly emerging leaves consist solely of necrotic petiole stubs. Visual symptoms may be sufficient to diagnose this disorder, but leaf nutrient analysis is also suggested, since symptoms of boron B deficiency can be similar.
Late stage potassium K deficiency symptoms are virtually indistinguishable from those of Mn deficiency at a distance and close examination is required to look for characteristic longitudinal streaking and basal symptom distribution of Mn deficiency.
Magnesium deficiency is caused by insufficient Mg in the soil. Magnesium is readily leached from sandy soils and other soils having little cation exchange capacity. High levels of nitrogen N , Potassium K , or calcium Ca in the soil can also induce or exacerbate Mg deficiencies.
Magnesium deficiency appears on the oldest leaves of palms as broad chlorotic yellow bands along the margins with the central portion of the leaves remaining distinctly green.
In severe cases leaflet tips may become necrotic. Older leaves become bronzed and dry appearance. Leaflets show necrosis and turn to reddish brown with translucent spots yellowing starts at the tip and spreads to the base.
Visual symptoms alone are usually sufficient to diagnose Mg deficiency. Magnesium deficiency symptoms differ from those of K deficiency in that symptom severity of discoloration K- deficient leaves is usually orange to bronze, shading gradually to green at the base of the leaf, whereas Mg- deficient leaves have distinctly green leaf centers and bright lemon yellow to orange margins.
Root feeding of ml of 0. Typical symptoms are yellowish-green or yellowish-orange leaflets. Older leaves are remaining green. Leaves droop as the stem becomes weak. In older palms, leaf number and size are reduced. Sometimes an apron of dead fronds develops around the stem due to weakness of the rachis.
Nuts may fall prematurely. Copra is rubbery and of poor market quality. Root feeding of 0. Iron deficiency usually appears on palms growing in poorly aerated soils or those that have been planted too deeply. Water logged soils and deep planting effectively suffocate the roots and reduce their effectiveness in taking up nutrients such as Fe.
The main symptom of iron deficiency is chlorosis or yellowing between the veins of new leaves Uniform chlorotic new leaves as the deficiency progresses, the tips become necrotic and leaf size reduced. Application of Feso4 0. Leaflets become chlorotic, narrow and reduced in length. In acute deficiency, flowering is delayed.
Zinc deficiency will also lead to button shedding. Its occurs mostly in saline soils. Young leaves exhibit narrow white bands at margins. Rusty appearance in leaf margin.
Rolling up of leaves. Occurs only in acid soil Management: Rolling of terminal leaves due to loss of turgor. Leaves appear to be bleached grey. Fail to produce flowers Management: Soil application of CuSO4 25 kg per ha.
Protection technologies of Coconut: Management practices include growing green manure sun hemp as an intercrop and ploughing in situ. Application of g urea, 1kg super phosphate and 1 kg potash per tree along with 25 kg farmyard manure FYM once in six months in June- July and December- January. Application of micronutrients viz. These measures help overcome nutritional disorders and restore the vigour and productivity of the trees.
There is a general response to the application of K and N; while response to phosphorous P is seen only in certain restricted and localized condition.
Among the secondary nutrients, magnesium Mg and chlorine Cl have beneficial effects, followed by calcium Ca , Sulphur S and sodium Na. Potatoes are often broadly classified as having a high glycemic index GI and so are often excluded from the diets of individuals trying to follow a low-GI diet. The GI of potatoes can vary considerably depending on the cultivar or cultivar category such as "red", russet , "white", or King Edward , growing conditions and storage, preparation methods by cooking method, whether it is eaten hot or cold, whether it is mashed or cubed or consumed whole , and accompanying foods consumed especially the addition of various high-fat or high-protein toppings.
In the UK, potatoes are not considered by the National Health Service NHS as counting or contributing towards the recommended daily five portions of fruit and vegetables , the 5-A-Day program. This table shows the nutrient content of potatoes next to other major staple foods, each one measured in its respective raw state, even though staple foods are not commonly eaten raw and are usually sprouted or cooked before eating.
In sprouted and cooked form, the relative nutritional and anti-nutritional contents of each of these grains or other foods may be different from the values in this table. Each nutrient every row has the highest number highlighted to show the staple food with the greatest amount in a gram raw portion.
Potatoes contain toxic compounds known as glycoalkaloids , of which the most prevalent are solanine and chaconine. Solanine is found in other plants in the same family, Solanaceae , which includes such plants as deadly nightshade Atropa belladonna , henbane Hyoscyamus niger and tobacco Nicotiana spp. These compounds, which protect the potato plant from its predators, are generally concentrated in its leaves, flowers, sprouts, and fruits in contrast to the tubers.
The glycoalkaloid content was, in order from highest to lowest: Exposure to light, physical damage, and age increase glycoalkaloid content within the tuber.
The concentration of glycoalkaloids in wild potatoes is sufficient to produce toxic effects in humans. Glycoalkaloid poisoning may cause headaches, diarrhea , cramps , and, in severe cases, coma and death.
However, poisoning from cultivated potato varieties is very rare. Light exposure causes greening from chlorophyll synthesis, giving a visual clue as to which areas of the tuber may have become more toxic. However, this does not provide a definitive guide, as greening and glycoalkaloid accumulation can occur independently of each other. Different potato varieties contain different levels of glycoalkaloids. The Lenape variety was released in but was withdrawn in as it contained high levels of glycoalkaloids.
In normal potatoes, analysis has shown solanine levels may be as little as 3. Potatoes are generally grown from seed potatoes, tubers specifically grown to be free from disease and to provide consistent and healthy plants.
To be disease free, the areas where seed potatoes are grown are selected with care. In the US, this restricts production of seed potatoes to only 15 states out of all 50 states where potatoes are grown. In the UK, most seed potatoes originate in Scotland , in areas where westerly winds prevent aphid attack and thus prevent spread of potato virus pathogens.
Potato growth is divided into five phases. During the first phase, sprouts emerge from the seed potatoes and root growth begins. During the second, photosynthesis begins as the plant develops leaves and branches. In the third phase, stolons develop from lower leaf axils on the stem and grow downwards into the ground and on these stolons new tubers develop as swellings of the stolon. This phase is often, but not always, associated with flowering.
At this phase, several factors are critical to a good yield: The fifth and final phase is the maturation of the tubers: New tubers may start growing at the surface of the soil. Since exposure to light leads to an undesirable greening of the skins and the development of solanine as a protection from the sun's rays, growers cover surface tubers. Commercial growers cover them by piling additional soil around the base of the plant as it grows called "hilling" up, or in British English "earthing up".
An alternative method, used by home gardeners and smaller-scale growers, involves covering the growing area with organic mulches such as straw or plastic sheets. Correct potato husbandry can be an arduous task in some circumstances. Good ground preparation, harrowing , plowing , and rolling are always needed, along with a little grace from the weather and a good source of water. Eliminating all root-weeds is desirable in potato cultivation. In general, the potatoes themselves are grown from the eyes of another potato and not from seed.
Home gardeners often plant a piece of potato with two or three eyes in a hill of mounded soil. Commercial growers plant potatoes as a row crop using seed tubers, young plants or microtubers and may mound the entire row. Seed potato crops are rogued in some countries to eliminate diseased plants or those of a different variety from the seed crop. Potatoes are sensitive to heavy frosts , which damage them in the ground.
Even cold weather makes potatoes more susceptible to bruising and possibly later rotting, which can quickly ruin a large stored crop. The historically significant Phytophthora infestans late blight remains an ongoing problem in Europe   and the United States.
Insects that commonly transmit potato diseases or damage the plants include the Colorado potato beetle , the potato tuber moth , the green peach aphid Myzus persicae , the potato aphid , beet leafhoppers , thrips , and mites. The potato cyst nematode is a microscopic worm that thrives on the roots, thus causing the potato plants to wilt. Since its eggs can survive in the soil for several years, crop rotation is recommended.
During the crop year , many of the certified organic potatoes produced in the United Kingdom and certified by the Soil Association as organic were sprayed with a copper pesticide  to control potato blight Phytophthora infestans.
A total of 36 unique pesticides were detected on potatoes over the 2, samples, though no individual sample contained more than 6 unique pesticide traces, and the average was 1. The average quantity of all pesticide traces found in the 2, samples was 1. While this was a very low value of pesticide residue, it was the highest amongst the 50 vegetables analyzed. At harvest time, gardeners usually dig up potatoes with a long-handled, three-prong "grape" or graip , i.
In larger plots, the plow is the fastest implement for unearthing potatoes. Commercial harvesting is typically done with large potato harvesters , which scoop up the plant and surrounding earth.
This is transported up an apron chain consisting of steel links several feet wide, which separates some of the dirt. The chain deposits into an area where further separation occurs. Different designs use different systems at this point. The most complex designs use vine choppers and shakers, along with a blower system to separate the potatoes from the plant.
The result is then usually run past workers who continue to sort out plant material, stones, and rotten potatoes before the potatoes are continuously delivered to a wagon or truck. Further inspection and separation occurs when the potatoes are unloaded from the field vehicles and put into storage. Immature potatoes may be sold as "creamer potatoes" and are particularly valued for taste.
These are often harvested by the home gardener or farmer by "grabbling", i. A creamer potato is a variety of potato harvested before it matures to keep it small and tender. It is generally either a Yukon Gold potato or a red potato, called gold creamers  or red creamers respectively, and measures approximately 1 inch 2. Like potatoes in general, they can be prepared by boiling, baking, frying, and roasting.
Potatoes are usually cured after harvest to improve skin-set. Skin-set is the process by which the skin of the potato becomes resistant to skinning damage. Potato tubers may be susceptible to skinning at harvest and suffer skinning damage during harvest and handling operations.
Curing allows the skin to fully set and any wounds to heal. Wound-healing prevents infection and water-loss from the tubers during storage. Storage facilities need to be carefully designed to keep the potatoes alive and slow the natural process of decomposition, which involves the breakdown of starch. The discovery of acrylamides in starchy foods in has led to international health concerns. They are believed to be probable carcinogens and their occurrence in cooked foods is being studied for potentially influencing health problems.
Under optimum conditions in commercial warehouses, potatoes can be stored for up to 10—12 months. Mechanical ventilation is used at various points during the process to prevent condensation and the accumulation of carbon dioxide.
When stored in homes unrefrigerated, the shelf life is usually a few weeks. If potatoes develop green areas or start to sprout, trimming or peeling those green-colored parts is inadequate to remove copresent toxins, and such potatoes are no longer edible.
The world dedicated The average world farm yield for potato was Potato farms in the United States were the most productive in , with a nationwide average of New Zealand farmers have demonstrated some of the best commercial yields in the world, ranging between 60 and 80 tonnes per hectare, some reporting yields of 88 tonnes potatoes per hectare. There is a big gap among various countries between high and low yields, even with the same variety of potato.
Average potato yields in developed economies ranges between 38—44 tonnes per hectare. China and India accounted for over a third of world's production in , and had yields of Potato crop yields are determined by factors such as the crop breed, seed age and quality, crop management practices and the plant environment.
Improvements in one or more of these yield determinants, and a closure of the yield gap, can be a major boost to food supply and farmer incomes in the developing world. Potatoes are prepared in many ways: The only requirement involves cooking to swell the starch granules. Most potato dishes are served hot but some are first cooked, then served cold, notably potato salad and potato chips crisps.
Unlike many foods, potatoes can also be easily cooked in a microwave oven and still retain nearly all of their nutritional value, provided they are covered in ventilated plastic wrap to prevent moisture from escaping; this method produces a meal very similar to a steamed potato, while retaining the appearance of a conventionally baked potato. Potato chunks also commonly appear as a stew ingredient.
Potatoes are boiled between 10 and 25  minutes, depending on size and type, to become soft. Peruvian cuisine naturally contains the potato as a primary ingredient in many dishes, as around 3, varieties of this tuber are grown there.
Smashed condimented potato is used in causa Limeña and papa rellena. French-fried potatoes are a typical ingredient in Peruvian stir-fries, including the classic dish lomo saltado. Chuño is a freeze-dried potato product traditionally made by Quechua and Aymara communities of Peru and Bolivia ,  and is known in various countries of South America, including Peru , Bolivia, Argentina , and Chile.
In Chile's Chiloé Archipelago , potatoes are the main ingredient of many dishes, including milcaos, chapaleles, curanto and chochoca.
In Ecuador , the potato, as well as being a staple with most dishes, is featured in the hearty locro de papas , a thick soup of potato, squash, and cheese. In the UK , potatoes form part of the traditional staple fish and chips. Roast potatoes are commonly served with a Sunday roast , and mashed potatoes form a major component of several other traditional dishes such as shepherd's pie , bubble and squeak , and bangers and mash.
New potatoes may be cooked with mint and often served with butter. The Tattie scone is a popular Scottish dish containing potatoes. Colcannon is a traditional Irish food made with mashed potato, shredded kale or cabbage, and onion; champ is a similar dish.
Boxty pancakes are eaten throughout Ireland, although associated especially with the North, and in Irish diaspora communities; they are traditionally made with grated potatoes, soaked to loosen the starch and mixed with flour, buttermilk and baking powder. A variant eaten and sold in Lancashire , especially Liverpool , is made with cooked and mashed potatoes. These are then mixed with regionally varying ingredients. In Germany, Northern and Eastern Europe especially in Scandinavian countries , Finland, Poland, Russia, Belarus and Ukraine , newly harvested, early ripening varieties are considered a special delicacy.
Boiled whole and served un-peeled with dill , these "new potatoes" are traditionally consumed with Baltic herring. Puddings made from grated potatoes kugel , kugelis , and potato babka are popular items of Ashkenazi , Lithuanian , and Belarusian cuisine.
Bauernfrühstück literally farmer's breakfast is a warm German dish made from fried potatoes, eggs , ham and vegetables. Cepelinai is Lithuanian national dish. They are a type of dumpling made from riced potatoes see Potato ricer and usually stuffed with minced meat , although sometimes dry cottage cheese curd or mushrooms are used instead. Stamppot , a traditional Dutch meal, is based on mashed potatoes mixed with vegetables. In France, the most notable potato dish is the Hachis Parmentier , named after Antoine-Augustin Parmentier , a French pharmacist, nutritionist, and agronomist who, in the late 18th century, was instrumental in the acceptance of the potato as an edible crop in the country.
The pâté aux pommes de terre is a regional potato dish from the central Allier and Limousin regions. In the north of Italy, in particular, in the Friuli region of the northeast, potatoes serve to make a type of pasta called gnocchi. Potatoes form one of the main ingredients in many soups such as the vichyssoise and Albanian potato and cabbage soup.
In western Norway, komle is popular. A traditional Canary Islands dish is Canarian wrinkly potatoes or papas arrugadas. Tortilla de patatas potato omelette and patatas bravas a dish of fried potatoes in a spicy tomato sauce are near-universal constituent of Spanish tapas. In the US, potatoes have become one of the most widely consumed crops and thus have a variety of preparation methods and condiments.
French fries and often hash browns are commonly found in typical American fast-food burger "joints" and cafeterias.
One popular favourite involves a baked potato with cheddar cheese or sour cream and chives on top, and in New England "smashed potatoes" a chunkier variation on mashed potatoes, retaining the peel have great popularity.
Potato flakes are popular as an instant variety of mashed potatoes, which reconstitute into mashed potatoes by adding water, with butter or oil and salt to taste.
A regional dish of Central New York , salt potatoes are bite-size new potatoes boiled in water saturated with salt then served with melted butter.
At more formal dinners, a common practice includes taking small red potatoes, slicing them, and roasting them in an iron skillet. Among American Jews , the practice of eating latkes fried potato pancakes is common during the festival of Hanukkah. A traditional Acadian dish from New Brunswick is known as poutine râpée.
The Acadian poutine is a ball of grated and mashed potato , salted, sometimes filled with pork in the centre, and boiled. The result is a moist ball about the size of a baseball. It is commonly eaten with salt and pepper or brown sugar. Poutine , by contrast, is a hearty serving of French fries, fresh cheese curds and hot gravy. Tracing its origins to Quebec in the s, it has become a widespread and popular dish throughout Canada.
Potato grading for Idaho potatoes is performed in which No. In South Asia , the potato is a very popular traditional staple. In India, the most popular potato dishes are aloo ki sabzi , batata vada , and samosa , which is spicy mashed potato mixed with a small amount of vegetable stuffed in conical dough, and deep fried.
Potatoes are also a major ingredient as fast food items, such as aloo chaat, where they are deep fried and served with chutney. In Northern India, alu dum and alu paratha are a favourite part of the diet; the first is a spicy curry of boiled potato, the second is a type of stuffed chapati.
A dish called masala dosa from South India is very notable all over India. It is a thin pancake of rice and pulse paste rolled over spicy smashed potato and eaten with sambhar and chutney.
Poori in south India in particular in Tamil Nadu is almost always taken with smashed potato masal. Other favourite dishes are alu tikki and pakoda items. Vada pav is a popular vegetarian fast food dish in Mumbai and other regions in the Maharashtra in India. Aloo posto a curry with potatoes and poppy seeds is immensely popular in East India, especially Bengal.
Although potatoes are not native to India, it has become a vital part of food all over the country especially North Indian food preparations. The Aloo gosht , Potato and meat curry , is one of the popular dishes in South Asia , especially in Pakistan. In East Asia, particularly Southeast Asia, rice is by far the predominant starch crop, with potatoes a secondary crop, especially in China and Japan.
In the winter, roadside sellers in northern China will also sell roasted potatoes. It is also occasionally seen in Korean and Thai cuisines. During the late 19th century, numerous images of potato harvesting appeared in European art, including the works of Willem Witsen and Anton Mauve. Van Gogh 's painting The Potato Eaters portrays a family eating potatoes. Van Gogh said he wanted to depict peasants as they really were.
He deliberately chose coarse and ugly models, thinking that they would be natural and unspoiled in his finished work.
It presents a theme representative of the peasants' struggle for survival. Millet's technique for this work incorporated paste-like pigments thickly applied over a coarsely textured canvas. The potato has been an essential crop in the Andes since the pre-Columbian Era. The Moche culture from Northern Peru made ceramics from earth, water, and fire. This pottery was a sacred substance, formed in significant shapes and used to represent important themes.
Potatoes are represented anthropomorphically as well as naturally. Invented in and marketed and sold commercially by Hasbro in , Mr. Potato Head is an American toy that consists of a plastic potato and attachable plastic parts such as ears and eyes to make a face.
It was the first toy ever advertised on television. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see spud disambiguation , tater disambiguation , and potato disambiguation. List of potato cultivars. History of the potato.
List of potato diseases. List of potato dishes. Retrieved 23 June Retrieved 31 December American Journal of Botany. Botanical Society of America. Retrieved 10 April Lost Crops of the Incas: Iberia and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History: American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved 10 September Chemistry, Analysis, Safety, and Plant Physiology". Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences.
Archived from the original on 25 November Retrieved 15 November Diccionario Usual" in Spanish. Retrieved 16 July Oxford English Dictionary 2nd ed.