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3. THE PROCESS
Besides representing an important saving of energy this way of operation reduces the problem of scaling on the heating surfaces considerably, implying that the capacity of the heating units may be maintained at a high level for longer periods. There was an authentication error. Due to the overprescribing of antibiotics and concerns about antibiotic resistance, health officials in England are proposing new guidelines promoting the use of honey as a first line of treatment for coughs. Therefore, by adjusting chemistry suitable to those nano-creatures, life spans could be greatly increased. Selenium as Sodium Selenate. You MUST NOT exceed maximum concentration as MUST dilute it just ordinary distilled or filtered water at least the minimum amount recommended it ranges from 4 to 8 drops per 8 ounces except very cautiously and gradually as you sense is still benefiting you. If mineral acids are used, the acidity must be reduced to pH 2 for stability.

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Or, perhaps you should call it triple-dipping, as If you've heard the media circus over recent months, you may be questioning what the real truth is. The oil is stored in tanks. Figure 2 shows the flow diagram of a typical fishmeal and oil plant. As already pointed out, there are alternatives to this layout and also different types of equipment to choose among for some of the unit operations. The most important alternatives will be mentioned in the following descriptions of the various processing steps.

Referring again to Figure 2, we shall now follow the material step by step through the factory. The raw material is first unloaded from the fishing vessel by crane, wet fish pump, pneumatic elevator or some sort of mechanical conveyor. The fish is weighed or measured by volume before it is transported to the pits or tanks for the storage of raw material. Large fish are hashed A while smaller fish for example, those less than 40 cm long are fed directly at a constant rate by the feeding machine B to the indirect steam cooker C.

The coagulated mass is pre-strained in a strainer conveyor D , or in a vibrating screen, before entering the twin screw press E. The products from the press presscake and press liquor are treated as follows. The presscake is disintegrated in the tearing machine wet mill F to facilitate mixing with stickwater concentrate see below and drying in an indirect steam dryer or a direct flame dryer G. The meal passes through a vibrating screen H furnished with a magnet to remove extraneous matter like pieces of wood and metal for example, fish hooks before entering the hammer mill J.

The ground meal is automatically weighed out in bags by the scales K , the bags are closed e. Alternatively, the meal is stored in a holding and blending silo before bagging, pelleting or storing in bulk. To remove most of the sludge, the press liquor passes through a decanter N. The press liquor then passes through a buffer tank O before separation into oil, stickwater and fine sludge in the stickwater centrifuge P.

The sludge is added to the presscake. The oil passes through a buffer tank R before water f and sludge impurities are removed polishing in the oil separator S. After polishing, the oil often passes through an inspection tank before storage in the oil tank. The stickwater passes through a buffer tank T before concentration in a multi-effect evaporator U. After the buffer tank V , the concentrate is mixed thoroughly with decanter-sludge and presscake before drying.

In some cases the stickwater concentrate, called condensed fish solubles, is sold separately. As indicated in Figure 2 heavy dotted line , the factory can be deodorized by air suction from all tanks and machinery. Methods of effective deodorization are still under study and reference should be made to Section 4. As stated, large fish have to be hashed into smaller pieces before being passed by the feeder into the cooker. This is to ensure uniform processing and equal temperature in the cooked material.

Also, the feeder ensures a steady rate of presentation to the cooker. Figure 3 illustrates one type of hasher often used. It consists of a rotor with staggered knives and a frame with a row of stationary knives. Figure 4 illustrates an example of a feeder. It consists of a hopper from the bottom of which the raw material is carried to the cooker by a screw conveyor. The conveyor's speed may be adapted to the rate of throughput desired by means of a stepless gear.

When the hopper is full of raw material, a level control mechanism stops the removal of raw material from the raw fish pits or silos. When the level has sunk to a fixed lower level, another level controller starts the intake flowing again.

Today pumps are increasingly used for the transportation of raw material, and these can easily be controlled by the automatic level controller of the hopper. Figure 5 gives an example of a so-called mass balance. Here we can follow the streams of the three major fractions of the raw material, solids fat-free dry matter , oil and water, through the factory. The actual figures will, of course, vary with the composition of the raw material, particularly with the oil content, but the diagram is sufficient to illustrate the general trend.

The prospective manufacturer may estimate his expected yield of meal on the basis of the dry matter content of his raw material plus moisture and residual fat in the meal. Likewise, the yield of oil will be the fat content of the raw material less the small amount 2.

In the following sections we shall take a closer look at the various unit operations of the process. The purpose of the heating process is to liberate the oil from the fat depots of the fish, and to condition the material for the subsequent treatment in the various processing units of the plant.

The oil is then free, and theoretically it should be possible to separate it from the solid material. The problem is primarily a question of heat transfer and temperature control to ensure a uniform, optimum temperature throughout the whole mass.

Since reduction of heat load on the material, that is the combined effect of temperature and time, tends to improve the quality of the products, we may expect new technological answers to the heating problem, in line with this new knowledge. However, at the present state of technology, we have to accept that optimum conditions for a particular type of raw material must largely be established through practical experience. The most common practice is to cook the fish in a steam cooker, through which it is conveyed continuously.

Heat is generally transferred indirectly from a surrounding jacket and a heated rotary screw conveyor. This is an improvement over the direct steam injection cooker, in which water is condensed in the mass during the process and has to be removed by the press and then evaporated from the press liquor. However, in indirect cookers provision is also made for the admission of live steam directly into the mass as this may sometimes be advantageous.

Cooking is an exacting operation in production and is sometimes difficult to control. Production of cooked material which can be readily pressed is dependent on the quality of the raw material and on the process conditions. A precise time-temperature programme for this process can therefore not be set up and, as mentioned above, a process of trial and error is generally required when fish of unknown history is processed. The proof of good cooking is good pressability of the mass which leads to proper removal of press liquor and, in particular for fatty fish species, efficient recovery of oil, giving a meal with low fat content which is a criterion of quality.

The process must be controlled to ensure sufficient cooking, but overcooking must be avoided as this results in problems with pressing and the presence of large amounts of suspended particles in the stickwater, which makes evaporation difficult. A typical continuous indirect cooker is shown in Figure 6. The cooker is designed as a cylinder having a steam heated jacket throughout and a steam heated rotor, designed as a screw conveyor with hollow flights.

The cooker is equipped with covers throughout for inspection and cleaning and with a nozzle system for blowing direct steam into the mass. The cooker may be provided with automatic temperature control equipment, automatic level control for raw material feeding, discharge control equipment which is required particularly for handling soft raw material and a trap for collecting heavy foreign matter like stones and scrap iron.

Cookers like this are generally available in sizes which can process from 16 t to 1 t of raw material per 24 h. The capacity of a heat exchanger, such as an indirect steam cooker, is proportional to the area of the heating surfaces and to the temperature difference between the two sides of the wall. Furthermore, the capacity is influenced by the resistance to heat transfer largely caused by the existence of films and coatings on the heating surfaces. An important way of reducing the tendency to scaling, caused by coagulation of protein on the hot walls, is to use moderate steam temperatures, especially in the early stages of heating.

Another measure is, of course, to introduce and enforce good routines for effective cleaning at regular intervals. An entirely different type of heating device is the so-called Contherm apparatus , recently tried out in connection with fishmeal and oil manufacture. The results, so far at low rates of throughput, have been quite promising.

The apparatus shown in Figure 7 consists of a vertical cylindrical heat exchanger provided with an agitator keeping the material in rapid movement, thus contributing to effective heat transfer.

During rotation, the agitator blades knives are pressed against the surrounding heating surface in order to prevent the formation of scale.

To reduce the viscosity of the material and to increase the rate of heat transfer, some stickwater should be added to the fish. Advantages of the Contherm heater are rapid heating with a holding time less than 2 min, effective temperature control, and quick and easy routines for dismantling and cleaning.

Another innovation is the tubular heater pre-cooker primarily designed and used for the utilization of waste heat, either from the evaporators or from the dryers. Because of the relatively low temperatures of these vapours or gases, they are particularly useful for preheating the raw material. The heater consists of a set of tubes coupled together and surrounded by a cylindrical jacket.

The raw material is moved through the tubes by pumping, and on its way it is heated by the hot gases circulating around the tubes, in the space between the latter and the jacket.

Besides representing an important saving of energy this way of operation reduces the problem of scaling on the heating surfaces considerably, implying that the capacity of the heating units may be maintained at a high level for longer periods. One result of the heating process is that the oil and a major part of the water is released and to a large extent may be removed from the solids by simple draining. Removal of more liquid is achieved by subsequent treatment of the solid part in presses or centrifuges, or in a combination of the two.

To facilitate the functioning of the press, the liquid liberated in the cooker is drained from the coagulated fish pulp in a strainer conveyor or in a vibrating or rotary strainer. Figure 8 shows a strainer conveyor set at an incline between the cooker and the press. It is designed on the same principle as that of a screw conveyor except that the lower end that closer to the cooker is fitted with an easily replaceable strainer in the shape of a half cylinder.

Strainers with different sizes of perforations may be required for various types of fish. Figure 9 shows a vibrating strainer. The fundamental principle here is that the cooked material is conveyed to a strainer which is kept vibrating by an electric motor.

The liquid phase passes through the strainer holes whereas the solid phase is vibrated along the surface of the strainer to an outlet. To ensure free drainage of liquid in the press, the material should be porous; that is, there should be many open channels in its mass for the passage of liquid. Cooked material from small and autolyzed fish will, as a rule, contain large quantities of fine particles sludge that tend to clog up these channels.

In such cases, the porosity of the presscake may be improved by increasing the diameter of the holes of the pre-strainer. A greater part of the fines will then follow the liquid phase and not hamper the function of the press. To take advantage of this measure, the capacity of the decanters desludging centrifuges should be sufficient to handle the increased volume of sludge in the liquid.

The purpose of the press is to squeeze out as much liquid as possible from the solid phase. This is important not only to improve the oil yield and the quality of the meal, but also to reduce the moisture content of the presscake as far as possible, thereby reducing the fuel consumption of the dryers and increasing their capacity.

Two types of continuous press are used in the fishmeal industry; these are provided with either one or two screws. Both work on the principle of helical screw conveyors rotating in a tightly fitting cage, which is provided with perforations for the drainage of press liquid.

The screws are made with a taper, thus ensuring that the volume between the flights is gradually reduced. This means that the material, during passage along the press, is subjected to increasing pressures and, as a consequence, additional amounts of liquid are expressed.

The performance of the press is largely determined by the profile and the compression ratio of the screws, that is, the ratio between the flight volumes of the inlet and outlet flights. Whether standard screws based on fish of average nature and quality, or screws with a special profile and compression ration should be used, is a question for careful consideration and discussion with the press manufacturer.

Occasionally difficulties are experienced, particularly when processing soft and autolyzed fish. The press "slips", meaning that the screws rotate in the material without conveying it forward.

This problem may be minimized by incorporating special devices in the single screw press; but the most efficient measure is to use two screws mounted side by side and rotating them in opposite directions. For this reason the twin screw press has become the most commonly used type of press. Figure 10 illustrates the principle of the twin screw press.

Pressing is carried out in a press chamber consisting of two hollow interlocked cylinders. The cylinder wall is made of heavily supported strainer plates made from stainless steel.

The two press screws have tapered shafts and the screw pitch varies so that the pitch, and thus the flight distance, is greatest at the thin end of the shafts. The screws rotate in opposite senses. The material is fed in at the end where the shafts are thinner, and is carried towards the end where they are thicker.

As can be seen, the space for the material gradually reduces and, to compensate, liquid is pressed out through the strainer plates surrounding the screws.

The performance of the press may be regulated in two ways: How to adjust these two factors to obtain optimum performance is largely a matter of experience and skill.

Good performance of the press depends upon relatively tight fitting of the screw flights to the surrounding strainer plates.

If the distance between the flight tops and the screens becomes too wide, for instance after long wear and tear, both the efficiency and the capacity will suffer; rebuilding and readjustment of the screw flights are then necessary. Another factor that needs continuous surveillance is the performance of the strainer plates. Regular inspection and cleaning is necessary to ensure that the holes are open and allow free escape of liquid.

As pointed out earlier. Basic information today indicates that moderate temperatures are preferable from the standpoint of release of oil and denaturation of protein. On the other side, high temperatures reduce the viscosity of the oil and tend to facilitate the flow from the solid phase. With the equipment we just have described, we must again rely on experimental data to establish optimum conditions for a particular raw material.

Processing problems may be encountered under two entirely different conditions. One relates to completely fresh fish that tends to retain more oil and water than desirable. For the time being, there is no solution to this problem except by resorting to one of the two equally deplorable measures; either by reducing the speed of the press and thereby the capacity of the whole plant.

Or by storing the fish for a day or two before processing. The other situation occurs with soft and autolyzed fish. As mentioned in the introduction to this section, the answer to this problem is to bleed off in the pre-strainer more liquid and fines to be handled by the decanters.

Some processors will often resort to the use of coagulating agents like formaldehyde, which help to solidify the material and improve the performance of the press. This, practice, however, should be restricted as far as possible because formaldehyde reacts with the essential amino acid lysine, and thereby reduces the nutritional quality of the protein. Calcium chloride CaCl 2 has also been used as a hardener, but this practice was abandoned because it raised the chloride content of the meal to unacceptable levels, particularly in cases where stickwater is incorporated and whole meal produced.

To separate solids from liquid by centrifugation is a standard operation in many industries including the fishmeal and oil industry. With the development of centrifuges that can handle materials with high contents of solids and at high rates of throughput, it 15 now possible to use decanters instead of presses to separate the solids from the liquid in cooked fish.

For a detailed description of the equipment see Figure 11 and Section 3. The advantages are several. First, it presents a simplification of the process. Secondly, centrifugation is a better known and more controllable unit operation than pressing and filtration.

Thirdly, centrifugation is a much quicker process than pressing and significantly reduces the heat load on the material, a factor of importance for the manufacture of special products. Perhaps the most important advantage is the ability of the centrifuge to process soft and very fluid material where the press would fail completely. Better hygiene and simpler procedures for washing operations are further features on the plus side.

On the negative side one should note that the centrifuge will discharge the solids with a higher moisture content than the press. This means increased fuel consumption for the drying operation. Furthermore, the centrifuge tends to produce more emulsions and fines, causing problems in the subsequent separation of oil. Plants with decanters instead of presses are in practical operation in many parts of the world, generally with small or medium rates of throughput, ranging from 12 to t of raw material per 24 h.

Although the use of decanters for the separation of solids and liquid in cooked fish material for the time being appears relatively unimportant, centrifugation is an interesting area where we may expect new developments.

Combinations of press, strainer and centrifuge in various ways also open interesting possibilities which should prove worthwhile investigating. The liquor coming from the press and the pre-strainer consists of water and varying amounts of oil and dry matter. The oil content is related to the proportion of oil in the fish. The content of dry matter, occurring both in dissolved and suspended finely dispersed forms, varies with the size and quality of the fish and with the extent of mechanical handling prior to processing.

The quantity of press liquor will also vary with the nature and quality of the raw material, and increases particularly with advancing autolysis of the fish. The separation of the three fractions of the press liquor, sludge, oil and water, is based on their different specific gravities. If press liquor is left for some time in a tank, it will settle out in three layers: In the early days of fish oil production, this method of settling under the influence of gravity alone was standard procedure.

It had many drawbacks such as poor yield, impure fractions and, above all, it was extremely slow. With centrifugation we get several thousand times greater forces at our disposal, and the separation process may now be accomplished in seconds when compared with the hours required for the settling method.

This applies to sludge removal as well as to separation of oil and water. The suspended solids are first to be removed. This is done in a horizontal centrifuge, a so- called decanter or desludger, the principle of which is shown in Figure It consists of a partly cylindrical and partly conical rotor drum bowl and, inside this, a screw conveyor of the same shape. The press liquor is fed into the rotor where, by centrifugal force, it is thrown toward the bowl's periphery. The denser solids are rapidly precipitated along the inside rotor surface.

The screw conveyor rotates with the bowl, but at a rate some 30 to 50 rpm faster than the speed of rotation of the drum; the deposited solids are thus scraped off continuously. Before being discharged, they are lifted out of the liquid phase and pass through a drying or dewatering zone. The performance of the decanter may be controlled in two ways. It is possible to adjust the thickness of the liquid layer a thick layer represents a longer zone and allows more time for clarification of the liquid and, associated with this, there will be a correspondingly shorter zone of.

The reverse will, of course, be the case with a thin liquid layer. The other regulating parameter is the speed of the screw conveyor relative to that of the bowl. The higher the content of solids in the liquid the faster the conveyor should rotate in relation to the bowl in order to remove the precipitate. In addition to these parameters one may naturally influence performance by regulating the feed.

Optimum conditions are dependent both on quantity and nature, specially particle size, of the solids in the liquid. Decanters are available in various sizes. For smaller plants, the investment in a decanter may not be economically justified.

In such cases a vibrating strainer, although less efficient, may be a cheaper but entirely satisfactory solution. Separation of stickwater from oil takes place in vertical disc centrifuges, either of the nozzle type, which discharge the stickwater and remaining sludge continuously, or of the self cleaning type, which is often preferred. In the latter, the stickwater is continuously discharged, whereas the sludge is collected in the bowl and periodically ejected according to a timed programme which depends on the quantity and the nature of the sludge.

The sludge in most cases can be pumped to the presscake. Figure 12 illustrates the principle of the self-cleaning disc centrifuge. The main component of the bowl is a stack of conical discs lying on top of each other at distances of 0. The discs have a number of distribution holes to provide passages for the liquid from the bottom of the disc stack. The decanter liquid is fed from a control tube l. The oil moves along the discs toward the centre and discharges through the holes in the nut 3.

The stickwater moves toward the periphery and discharges behind the separating plate through the regulation ring 4. This is inter-changeable to adjust the separation.

The sludge separates along the bowl periphery and is discharged through the bowl slot into the frame chute at regular intervals 2. Oil polishing, carried out in special separators, is the final refining step done at the factory before the oil is pumped into storage. Polishing is facilitated by using hot water, which extracts impurities from the oil and thus ensures stability during storage.

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