ENR - Feng Shui: Mikrobiologiya , , 17 , After using for a month, I am its biggest fan ever. International Bulletin of Bacteriological Nomenclature and Taxonomy , , 12 , Pseudomonas umsongensis Kwon et al. Une bactérie du sol capable d'utiliser, comme source de carbone, la fraction fixe de certaines oléorésines, Pseudomonas resinovorans n. ABC - Electric 2, Part 2.
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Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry doi: Lipids in Health and Disease Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences The Plant Journal Journal of Biochemistry 6: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 11 Pt A: FEBS Letters YR-Hyuga-Risou attenuates blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Food Science and Technology Research Journal of Applied Phycology 29 5: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering Plant and Soil Microbes and Environments Fish Pathology 52 1: Marine Biotechnology 19 2: Fish and Shellfish Immunology During biofilm formation many species of bacteria are able to communicate with one another through a mechanism called quoreum sensing [ 17 ].
It is a system of stimulus to co-ordinate gene expression with other cells and response related to the density of their local population. During quorum sensing signalling molecules attach to receptors of new bacteria and help in transcription of genes within a single species of bacteria as well as between different bacterial species [ 18 ] Figure 2.
QS system enables communication between intraspecies and interspecies which involves in terms of biofilm formation, food shortages and environmental stress conditions, such as disinfectants, antibiotics, bacterial colonization, the identification of annoying species, the establishment of normal intestinal flora as well as the prevention of harmful intestinal flora.
Many clinically-associated bacteria use QS for the regulation of the collective production of virulence factors. QS in Gram-positive bacteria occur through a series of events such as production, detection and response to AIs. The oligopeptide auto inducing peptides in many Gram positive bacteria are detected by membrane-bound two component signal transduction systems [ 19 - 21 ].
They are encoded as precursors pro AIPs and possess sequence diversity [ 8 , 18 , 22 - 25 ]. When micro-organisms bind to a surface, they produce extracellular polymeric substance EPS and form biofilm. Biofilm posing a great problem for public health due to its resistant nature to antibiotics and disease associated with indwelling medical devices [ 2 , 27 ].
It is found that H. Biofilm forming capability has been reported in large number of bacterial species such as P. A few biofilm forming bacterial species have described below. It has the ability to secret toxins, polysaccharide and can form biofilm.
It can also form biofilm in-vitro [ 17 ]. Different environmental conditions affect E. It has a strong tendency to form biofilm [ 38 , 39 ] and such biofilm has been found to be partially responsible for chronic infections. Silver has antibacterial activity and bactericidal concentration of silver necessary to eradicate the bacterial biofilm was found to be times higher as compared to that used to eradicate planktonic bacteria [ 10 ]. The biofilms of P.
These are extremely resistant to antibiotics. Their biofilm formation involves an initial attachment to a solid surface which leads to the formation of micro-colonies.
These micro colonies differentiate into exopolysaccharide-encased, mature biofilms [ 2 ]. It grows on catheters and chronic wounds as biofilm [ 41 , 42 ]. The cytoplasmic proteins also working as matrix proteins allows enhanced flexibility and adaptation to S. During surgical implantation of polymeric devices the S. Biofilm formation is responsible for device related infections of S. In staphylococci , the main factor which is responsible for adhesion is called the polysaccharide intercellular adhesion PIA.
In Staphylococcus cells are covers by PIA which hold them together as the most important component of the extracellular matrix [ 46 ]. In a recent study Rohde et al. Enterobacter causing nasocomial infections is most frequently isolated species and in recent years has emerged as important pathogenic bacteria [ 29 ]. Bloodstream infections which are responsible for morbidity and mortality in both developing and developed countries are caused by E.
It also causes biofilm associated infections such as UTIs and biliary tract infections. Enterobector also has property of intrinsic resistance to certain antibiotics such as ampicillin and narrow-spectrum cephalosporins. It is also showing high frequency of mutations to expanded-spectrum and broadspectrum cephalosporin. Field emission scanning electron microscopy F-ESEM and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used to investigate the biofilm of K.
In a study on different strains of K. Also the ability of Klebsiella pneumonia to form biofilm takes place more successfully in a mix strains than individual strain [ 50 , 51 ]. Mechanisms of antibiotics and biocides resistance of biofilms are categorized into four classes which include a active molecule inactivation directly b altering body's sensitivity to target of action, c reduction of the drug concentration before reaching to the target site and d efflux systems Figure 3.
Biofilm antibiotic resistance level may vary among different sittings and the key factors responsible for this resistance may also differ. Regarding resistance, the primary evidence shows that conventional mechanisms are unable to explain the high resistance to antibacterial agents associated with biofilms, although this evidence cannot be ignored in resistance in the growth of adherent cells.
So it is suggested that the resistance posed by the adhered bacteria or biofilms may have some intrinsic mechanisms and are responsible for conventional antibiotic resistance [ 52 ].
Several mechanisms have been explored that are considered to be key factors in high resistance nature of biofilms. These mechanisms are a limited diffusion, b enzyme causing neutralizations, c heterogeneous functions, d slow growth rate, e presence of persistent non-dividing cells and f biofilm phenotype such adaptive mechanisms e.
Antibiotic resistance associate to biofilm. Description of the key mechanisms involved in antibiotic resistance such as enzyme causing neutralizations, presence of persistent non- dividing cells and biofilm phenotype. Diffusion of antibiotics can take place through the matrix of the biofilm. Diffusion or penetration of antibiotics to deeper layers of biofilm is affected by exopolysaccharide acting as a physical barrier. When molecules direct interact with this matrix, their movement to the interior of the biofilm is slow down, resulting antibiotic resistance.
This may also acts as a hindrance for high molecular weight molecules such as complement system proteins and lysozyme, and in liquid culture bacterial cells are readily exposed to antibiotics as compare to compact structure biofilm. Bacteria escape from biofilm that do not produce polysaccharide and are easily attack by immune system cells.
Inactivation of antibiotic takes place when bind to biofilm matrix. Presence of this matrix explains slow penetration of fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides [ 39 , 55 , 56 ]. Low penetration of antibiotic is not sufficient to explain the biofilm resistance, other mechanisms have been assumed that must be involved.
This is also suggested recently that slow diffusion of antibiotics permit plenty of time to establish a protective response to stress [ 39 ]. Antibiotics resistance in biofilm may be due to the presence of neutralizing enzymes which degrade or inactivate antibiotics.
These enzymes are proteins which confer resistance by mechanisms such as hydrolysis, modification of antimicrobials by different biochemical reactions. Accumulations of these enzymes occur in the glycocalyx from the biofilm surface by the action of antibiotics.
Neutralization by enzymes is enhanced by slow penetration of antibiotics and also antibiotics degradation in the biofilm. In cystic fibrosis which is caused by P. During a study when filters impregnated with antibiotics was applied on K. Studies performed on determination of microbial growth in biofilms by using a microelectrode with probes to direct measure oxygen concentration in different areas of the biofilms [ 39 ]. The biofilms are heterogeneous nature both metabolically and structurally and both processes such as aerobic and anaerobic occur at the same time.
So response against antibiotics may be different in different areas of the biofilms. On surface of biofilm there is a high level of activity of antibiotics while inside the biofilms, slow or absent growth reduces the sensitivity of the cells to antimicrobials [ 59 ]. In the various sub layers of biofilm, aerobic or facultative anaerobic microbial populations help us to know the differential susceptibility to various antibiotic therapies.
Antibiotics response to the planktonic forms is different from the adhered cells. Action of aminoglycosides is affected by limitation of oxygen and anaerobic growth of microorganisms, which is affected by the presence of oxygen and pH gradients.
Slow growth of microorganisms occurs due to limited availability of nutrients which confer resistance to antibiotics.
In case of biofilm a gradient of nutrients resulting in metabolically active cell periphery or surface layer and inactive cells within its interior [ 60 ].
Bacterial cells are attack by both penicillin and ampicillin only when they are growing. So due to slow growth resistance has been determined in different bacterial strains such as resistance to cetrimide on E. It has been shown that this resistance was due to slow growth [ 13 , 61 ]. There are some natural peptides produce during host innate immune response act as antibacterial providing protection to the body [ 62 ].
In Cystic fibrosis patients, using ciprofloxacin and tetracycline can clear active growing cells and it is suggested that a combination of antibiotic colistin with other two antibiotics ciprofloxacin and tetracycline will be very effective in clearing P.
After a purling antibiotics treatment of biofilm, a very small number of bacterial cells remain viable, called persistent cells. These cells may or may not give this resistance to their progeny and return to their normal state after the release of the applied stress or pressure.
The persistent cells stop their replication for small duration for the survival of the community. Their adaptive mechanism is not related to the mechanism followed by the cells during stress environmental damage. Persistent cells can bear multiple antibiotic doses and work for survival. When density of bacterial cells number in stationary phase raised to maximum, persistent cells increase in number indicting their main role in survival [ 66 ]. There are certain evidences for the presence of persistent cells in biofilm: During biofilm formation, bacteria produce some products called secondary metabolites.
Many have written reviews in regards to clearing out their sinuses. I don't have any sinus problems so didn't notice anything happening there. Others have written reviews in regards to fibroids. Again, I haven't any uterus problems, so didn't notice anything there.
I should note, despite being in my mid 50's, menopause hasn't happened for me. My period started the second day of taking this product.
I only mention this because it was not slated to occur at this time. Now, to the leg. As mentioned earlier, I suspect DVT in my leg. Five years ago I had a heart attack resulting in two stents because of clogged arteries.
I've been taking this product for 5 or 6 weeks now and feel a difference. It's a slow process, but there is considerably less pain in my leg. My feet no longer feel cold all the time.
After 3 weeks of starting the Natto-Serra I was feeling, for about 2 weeks, a tingling in my leg, such as the tingle you get when a limb falls asleep. That has now gone away. My foot for the same time period felt like it had mild sunburn across the top. Shoes were a bit annoying to wear, and this too has passed. I also do not feel as sluggish as I used to.
I definitely feel more energetic which I attribute to better circulation. My blood pressure is also beginning to fall back into a normal range. For me, my blood pressure can be anywhere from the over 90 to the over range. Yesterday's reading was over I started the Natto-Serra at 1 pill 3 times daily. I didn't really feel results with this so I increased to 2 pills 3 times daily. That was too much, was getting light headed.
Now I'm taking 2 pills upon waking and 2 at bedtime. This seems to work for me. Every week that I take the Natto-Serra, I feel a difference in my health. I had read one review in which the person stated he felt worse before he felt better. I kept this in mind when using the product, because like that reviewer, I too felt a bit worse before I started feeling better.
I figured I had so much garbage in my veins, there isn't any way this is going to fix itself overnight. As one herbalist once put it, you didn't poison your body overnight, you won't fix it overnight. I am not on any medications such as plavix, blood thinners, blood pressure medicine, etc. I gave these up less than a year after my heart attack when my doctor kept piling on more prescriptions and shrugging her shoulders when I asked questions.
So, I started an herbal regimen that for 4 years worked fine but somehow couldn't keep my leg clear of plaque. Anyway, I went from needing a break halfway from my vehicle to the door to the store, to now being able to make that walk and only feel mild to moderate discomfort.
I figure at this rate I will be making that walk pain free in about a month or two. I hope this review helps any person giving this product consideration. I'll give an update in about a month.
About 1 week after taking these pills, I noticed pain in my right shoulder near the rotator cuff. The last time I had experienced that kind of pain was when I first injured my rotator cuff playing dodgeball. I would only notice the scar tissue pain when trying to do pull ups and bench presses.
The week after taking these pills however, the injury felt fresh and I could feel it with every moment. I continued to take the pills, and about 5 days later, the pain disappeared. I began to bench press and do pull ups again. I am happy to say that I do not feel that scar tissue anymore during those exercises!!
I think that the pills caused me pain initially by breaking up the scar tissue, and I healed after that! This is a remarkable product. I have been having blood clots for a couple of years. Doctors and hospitals used clot breaking drugs that I had to inject into my belly. After doing that for a month I was put on blood thinners.
I heard about this product and figured I would give it a try. I can honestly say in the short period I have had this product that it does the work of both the old medicine. It actually broke up several clots I had. Could not believe it!
Anyway, love it and will continue buying it. Initially, what convinced me to buy this product were the overwhelmingly favorable reviews, but now that I am on my third bottle, I will speak from personal experience--not only has it reduced my cholesterol levels, but it also seems to quell the back and joint discomfort I was experiencing prior to using.
Doctor's Best Natto-Serra definitely gets a thumbs up from this consumer! I've purched a lot of supplements over the years that didn't do anything noticible, but this produt gave unexpected results right away. I've had a skin condition for 50 years that nothing has ever helped and I saw improvement in just a few days which has continued over the month I've been using it.
I would give 10 stars for this product if possible. After using for a month, I am its biggest fan ever. Total and grateful surprise! A few years ago all my joints all started aching. After research, I found out about this stuff called fibrin in the bloodstream I already had arthritis in hands, knee's, neck.
When we're young, it helps cushion and repair damaged joints, but after 30 years our bodies stop making enzymes to control fibrin, so it causes inflamation in our joints. It's absolutely brutal non stop pain in hands, knee's, etc.
I could feel it was working after just a couple capsules! Now going on 6 months, I still get little twinges of pain , but nothing compred to how brutal it was! Since I started taking natto-serra! At first I tried nattokinase and serrapeptase separately, the highest doses but it was ripping my stomach apart, so I cut doses in half, and took in between meals times a day, if I missed a dose, I was in pain, If I miss a dose now, after 6 months, it's down to little twinges of pain!
This product is a lifesaver for someone who's hands are brutalized on a daily basis, not to mention these knee's that have survived 43 years of brutal construction abuse! See all reviews. Most recent customer reviews. Published 4 days ago.