Footnotes Originally approved I received this book for free in exchange for an honest and unbiased review. Care should be taken to avoid excess energy intake. The Project Document was signed on 1 April and the project became operational in June , with project implementation carried out directly from FAO Headquarters. A lot of the items on the Grocery Shopping Guide were things I already purchase, so I didn't need to change my shopping habits, aside from eliminating the junk food and frozen entrees I normally buy. Fulfillment by Amazon FBA is a service we offer sellers that lets them store their products in Amazon's fulfillment centers, and we directly pack, ship, and provide customer service for these products. First, it is difficult, if not impossible, to establish a control group.
Perhaps the biggest difference from MyPlate is the push for meatless proteins such as tofu, beans and lentils. To learn more, go to Canada's Food Guide. TOPS has tools to help you learn more about the Food Exchange System in a variety of attractive, easy-to-understand formats. Members and non-members can check out our Real Life Book: Members, check out Food Exchange Cards. MyPlate shows you a simple way to create a balanced, nutritious meal. Eat healthy and learn how to make better food choices with Canada's Food Guide.
Your doctor prescribes the diet. The Food Exchange System The Food Exchange System guides you to use variety and flexibility in your meal planning to achieve balanced nutrition at a calorie level that is best for your goals.
Robert Boyle advanced chemistry. Sanctorius measured body weight. Physician Herman Boerhaave modeled the digestive process. Physiologist Albrecht von Haller worked out the difference between nerves and muscles. Sometimes forgotten during his life, James Lind , a physician in the British navy, performed the first scientific nutrition experiment in Lind discovered that lime juice saved sailors that had been at sea for years from scurvy , a deadly and painful bleeding disorder.
Between and , an estimated two million sailors had died of scurvy. Around , Antoine Lavoisier discovered the details of metabolism, demonstrating that the oxidation of food is the source of body heat. Called the most fundamental chemical discovery of the 18th century,  Lavoisier discovered the principle of conservation of mass.
His ideas made the phlogiston theory of combustion obsolete. In , George Fordyce recognized calcium as necessary for the survival of fowl. In the early 19th century, the elements carbon , nitrogen , hydrogen , and oxygen were recognized as the primary components of food, and methods to measure their proportions were developed.
In , François Magendie discovered that dogs fed only carbohydrates sugar , fat olive oil , and water died evidently of starvation, but dogs also fed protein survived, identifying protein as an essential dietary component. In the early s, Kanehiro Takaki observed that Japanese sailors whose diets consisted almost entirely of white rice developed beriberi or endemic neuritis, a disease causing heart problems and paralysis , but British sailors and Japanese naval officers did not.
Adding various types of vegetables and meats to the diets of Japanese sailors prevented the disease, not because of the increased protein as Takaki supposed but because it introduced a few parts per million of thiamine to the diet, later understood as a cure . In , Eugen Baumann observed iodine in thyroid glands. In , Christiaan Eijkman worked with natives of Java , who also suffered from beriberi. Eijkman observed that chickens fed the native diet of white rice developed the symptoms of beriberi but remained healthy when fed unprocessed brown rice with the outer bran intact.
His assistant, Gerrit Grijns correctly identified and described the anti-beriberi substance in rice. Eijkman cured the natives by feeding them brown rice, discovering that food can cure disease. Over two decades later, nutritionists learned that the outer rice bran contains vitamin B1, also known as thiamine. In the early 20th century, Carl von Voit and Max Rubner independently measured caloric energy expenditure in different species of animals, applying principles of physics in nutrition.
In , Edith G. Willcock and Frederick Hopkins showed that the amino acid tryptophan aids the well-being of mice but it did not assure their growth. Babcock and Edwin B. Hart started the cow feeding, single-grain experiment , which took nearly four years to complete. In , Casimir Funk coined the term vitamin , a vital factor in the diet, from the words "vital" and "amine," because these unknown substances preventing scurvy, beriberi, and pellagra , were thought then to be derived from ammonia.
The vitamins were studied in the first half of the 20th century. In , Elmer McCollum and Marguerite Davis discovered the first vitamin, fat-soluble vitamin A , then water-soluble vitamin B in ; now known to be a complex of several water-soluble vitamins and named vitamin C as the then-unknown substance preventing scurvy. In , Sir Edward Mellanby incorrectly identified rickets as a vitamin A deficiency because he could cure it in dogs with cod liver oil.
Bishop discover vitamin E as essential for rat pregnancy, originally calling it "food factor X" until In , Hart discovered that trace amounts of copper are necessary for iron absorption. In , Albert Szent-Györgyi isolated ascorbic acid , and in proved that it is vitamin C by preventing scurvy. In , he synthesized it, and in , he won a Nobel Prize for his efforts. Szent-Györgyi concurrently elucidated much of the citric acid cycle. In the s, William Cumming Rose identified essential amino acids , necessary protein components that the body cannot synthesize.
In , Underwood and Marston independently discovered the necessity of cobalt. In , Eugene Floyd DuBois showed that work and school performance are related to caloric intake. In , Erhard Fernholz discovered the chemical structure of vitamin E and then he tragically disappeared. In , rationing in the United Kingdom during and after World War II took place according to nutritional principles drawn up by Elsie Widdowson and others.
In , The U. Department of Agriculture introduced the Food Guide Pyramid. The list of nutrients that people are known to require is, in the words of Marion Nestle , "almost certainly incomplete".
Some nutrients can be stored - the fat-soluble vitamins - while others are required more or less continuously. Poor health can be caused by a lack of required nutrients, or for some vitamins and minerals, too much of a required nutrient.
The macronutrients are carbohydrates , fiber , fats , protein , and water. Some of the structural material can be used to generate energy internally, and in either case it is measured in Joules or kilocalories often called "Calories" and written with a capital C to distinguish them from little 'c' calories.
Vitamins, minerals, fiber, and water do not provide energy, but are required for other reasons. Molecules of carbohydrates and fats consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. Carbohydrates range from simple monosaccharides glucose, fructose and galactose to complex polysaccharides starch.
Fats are triglycerides , made of assorted fatty acid monomers bound to a glycerol backbone. Some fatty acids, but not all, are essential in the diet: Protein molecules contain nitrogen atoms in addition to carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen.
The fundamental components of protein are nitrogen-containing amino acids , some of which are essential in the sense that humans cannot make them internally. Some of the amino acids are convertible with the expenditure of energy to glucose and can be used for energy production, just as ordinary glucose, in a process known as gluconeogenesis. By breaking down existing protein, the carbon skeleton of the various amino acids can be metabolized to intermediates in cellular respiration; the remaining ammonia is discarded primarily as urea in urine.
Carbohydrates may be classified as monosaccharides , disaccharides , or polysaccharides depending on the number of monomer sugar units they contain. They constitute a large part of foods such as rice , noodles , bread , and other grain -based products, also potatoes , yams, beans, fruits, fruit juices and vegetables. Monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides contain one, two, and three or more sugar units, respectively.
Polysaccharides are often referred to as complex carbohydrates because they are typically long, multiple branched chains of sugar units. Traditionally, simple carbohydrates are believed to be absorbed quickly, and therefore to raise blood-glucose levels more rapidly than complex carbohydrates.
This, however, is not accurate. Dietary fiber is a carbohydrate that is incompletely absorbed in humans and in some animals.
Like all carbohydrates, when it is metabolized it can produce four Calories kilocalories of energy per gram. However, in most circumstances it accounts for less than that because of its limited absorption and digestibility.
Dietary fiber consists mainly of cellulose, a large carbohydrate polymer which is indigestible as humans do not have the required enzymes to disassemble it. There are two subcategories: Whole grains, fruits especially plums , prunes , and figs , and vegetables are good sources of dietary fiber. There are many health benefits of a high-fiber diet.
Dietary fiber helps reduce the chance of gastrointestinal problems such as constipation and diarrhea by increasing the weight and size of stool and softening it. Insoluble fiber, found in whole wheat flour , nuts and vegetables, especially stimulates peristalsis ;— the rhythmic muscular contractions of the intestines, which move digest along the digestive tract.
Soluble fiber, found in oats, peas, beans, and many fruits, dissolves in water in the intestinal tract to produce a gel that slows the movement of food through the intestines. This may help lower blood glucose levels because it can slow the absorption of sugar.
Additionally, fiber, perhaps especially that from whole grains, is thought to possibly help lessen insulin spikes, and therefore reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. The link between increased fiber consumption and a decreased risk of colorectal cancer is still uncertain.
A molecule of dietary fat typically consists of several fatty acids containing long chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms , bonded to a glycerol. They are typically found as triglycerides three fatty acids attached to one glycerol backbone. Fats may be classified as saturated or unsaturated depending on the detailed structure of the fatty acids involved.
Saturated fats have all of the carbon atoms in their fatty acid chains bonded to hydrogen atoms, whereas unsaturated fats have some of these carbon atoms double-bonded , so their molecules have relatively fewer hydrogen atoms than a saturated fatty acid of the same length. Unsaturated fats may be further classified as monounsaturated one double-bond or polyunsaturated many double-bonds. Furthermore, depending on the location of the double-bond in the fatty acid chain, unsaturated fatty acids are classified as omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids.
Trans fats are a type of unsaturated fat with trans -isomer bonds; these are rare in nature and in foods from natural sources; they are typically created in an industrial process called partial hydrogenation. There are nine kilocalories in each gram of fat. Fatty acids such as conjugated linoleic acid , catalpic acid, eleostearic acid and punicic acid , in addition to providing energy, represent potent immune modulatory molecules.
Saturated fats typically from animal sources have been a staple in many world cultures for millennia. Saturated and some trans fats are typically solid at room temperature such as butter or lard , while unsaturated fats are typically liquids such as olive oil or flaxseed oil. Trans fats are very rare in nature, and have been shown to be highly detrimental to human health, but have properties useful in the food processing industry, such as rancidity resistance. Most fatty acids are non-essential, meaning the body can produce them as needed, generally from other fatty acids and always by expending energy to do so.
However, in humans, at least two fatty acids are essential and must be included in the diet. An appropriate balance of essential fatty acids— omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids —seems also important for health, although definitive experimental demonstration has been elusive.
Both of these "omega" long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are substrates for a class of eicosanoids known as prostaglandins , which have roles throughout the human body. They are hormones , in some respects. The omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid EPA , which can be made in the human body from the omega-3 essential fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid ALA , or taken in through marine food sources, serves as a building block for series 3 prostaglandins e.
The omega-6 dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid DGLA serves as a building block for series 1 prostaglandins e. An appropriately balanced intake of omega-3 and omega-6 partly determines the relative production of different prostaglandins, which is one reason why a balance between omega-3 and omega-6 is believed important for cardiovascular health.
In industrialized societies, people typically consume large amounts of processed vegetable oils, which have reduced amounts of the essential fatty acids along with too much of omega-6 fatty acids relative to omega-3 fatty acids.
Moreover, the conversion desaturation of DGLA to AA is controlled by the enzyme deltadesaturase , which in turn is controlled by hormones such as insulin up-regulation and glucagon down-regulation. The amount and type of carbohydrates consumed, along with some types of amino acid, can influence processes involving insulin, glucagon, and other hormones; therefore, the ratio of omega-3 versus omega-6 has wide effects on general health, and specific effects on immune function and inflammation , and mitosis i.
Proteins are structural materials in much of the animal body e. They also form the enzymes that control chemical reactions throughout the body. Each protein molecule is composed of amino acids , which are characterized by inclusion of nitrogen and sometimes sulphur these components are responsible for the distinctive smell of burning protein, such as the keratin in hair.
The body requires amino acids to produce new proteins protein retention and to replace damaged proteins maintenance. As there is no protein or amino acid storage provision, amino acids must be present in the diet. Excess amino acids are discarded, typically in the urine. For all animals, some amino acids are essential an animal cannot produce them internally and some are non-essential the animal can produce them from other nitrogen-containing compounds. About twenty amino acids are found in the human body, and about ten of these are essential and, therefore, must be included in the diet.
A diet that contains adequate amounts of amino acids especially those that are essential is particularly important in some situations: A complete protein source contains all the essential amino acids; an incomplete protein source lacks one or more of the essential amino acids.
It is possible with protein combinations of two incomplete protein sources e. However, complementary sources of protein do not need to be eaten at the same meal to be used together by the body. Water is excreted from the body in multiple forms; including urine and feces , sweating , and by water vapour in the exhaled breath. Therefore, it is necessary to adequately rehydrate to replace lost fluids.
Early recommendations for the quantity of water required for maintenance of good health suggested that 6—8 glasses of water daily is the minimum to maintain proper hydration. Most of this quantity is contained in prepared foods. For healthful hydration, the current EFSA guidelines recommend total water intakes of 2. These reference values include water from drinking water, other beverages, and from food.
The EFSA panel also determined intakes for different populations. Recommended intake volumes in the elderly are the same as for adults as despite lower energy consumption, the water requirement of this group is increased due to a reduction in renal concentrating capacity.
Dehydration and over-hydration - too little and too much water, respectively - can have harmful consequences. Drinking too much water is one of the possible causes of hyponatremia , i.
Pure ethanol provides 7 calories per gram. For distilled spirits , a standard serving in the United States is 1. A 5 ounce serving of wine contains to calories. A 12 ounce serving of beer contains 95 to calories. Alcoholic beverages are considered empty calorie foods because other than calories, these contribute no essential nutrients.
The micronutrients are minerals , vitamins , and others. Dietary minerals are inorganic chemical elements required by living organisms,  other than the four elements carbon , hydrogen , nitrogen , and oxygen that are present in nearly all organic molecules. The term "mineral" is archaic, since the intent is to describe simply the less common elements in the diet. Some are heavier than the four just mentioned, including several metals , which often occur as ions in the body.
Some dietitians recommend that these be supplied from foods in which they occur naturally, or at least as complex compounds, or sometimes even from natural inorganic sources such as calcium carbonate from ground oyster shells. Some minerals are absorbed much more readily in the ionic forms found in such sources. On the other hand, minerals are often artificially added to the diet as supplements; the most famous is likely iodine in iodized salt which prevents goiter.
Healthy lifestyle nutrition recommendations for the general public are also appropriate for individuals with type 2 diabetes. Because many individuals with type 2 diabetes are overweight and insulin resistant, MNT should emphasize lifestyle changes that result in reduced energy intake and increased energy expenditure through physical activity.
Because many individuals also have dyslipidemia and hypertension, reducing saturated and trans fatty acids, cholesterol, and sodium is often desirable. Therefore, the first nutrition priority is to encourage individuals with type 2 diabetes to implement lifestyle strategies that will improve glycemia, dyslipidemia, and blood pressure. Although there are similarities to those above for type 1 diabetes, MNT recommendations for established type 2 diabetes differ in several aspects from both recommendations for type 1 diabetes and the prevention of diabetes.
MNT progresses from prevention of overweight and obesity, to improving insulin resistance and preventing or delaying the onset of diabetes, and to contributing to improved metabolic control in those with diabetes. With established type 2 diabetes treated with fixed doses of insulin or insulin secretagogues, consistency in timing and carbohydrate content of meals is important.
However, rapid-acting insulins and rapid-acting insulin secretagogues allow for more flexible food intake and lifestyle as in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Increased physical activity by individuals with type 2 diabetes can lead to improved glycemia, decreased insulin resistance, and a reduction in cardiovascular risk factors, independent of change in body weight. Resistance training is also effective in improving glycemia and, in the absence of proliferative retinopathy, people with type 2 diabetes can be encouraged to perform resistance exercise three times a week Adequate energy intake that provides appropriate weight gain is recommended during pregnancy.
Weight loss is not recommended; however, for overweight and obese women with GDM, modest energy and carbohydrate restriction may be appropriate. MNT for GDM focuses on food choices for appropriate weight gain, normoglycemia, and absence of ketones. Because GDM is a risk factor for subsequent type 2 diabetes, after delivery, lifestyle modifications aimed at reducing weight and increasing physical activity are recommended.
Prepregnancy MNT includes an individualized prenatal meal plan to optimize blood glucose control. Due to the continuous fetal draw of glucose from the mother, maintaining consistency of times and amounts of food eaten are important to avoidance of hypoglycemia. Plasma glucose monitoring and daily food records provide valuable information for insulin and meal plan adjustments. MNT for GDM primarily involves a carbohydrate-controlled meal plan that promotes optimal nutrition for maternal and fetal health with adequate energy for appropriate gestational weight gain, achievement and maintenance of normoglycemia, and absence of ketosis.
Specific nutrition and food recommendations are determined and subsequently modified based on individual assessment and self-monitoring of blood glucose. A recent large clinical trial reported that treatment of GDM with nutrition therapy, blood glucose monitoring, and insulin therapy as required for glycemic control reduced serious perinatal complications without increasing the rate of cesarean delivery as compared with routine care Maternal health—related quality of life was also improved.
Hypocaloric diets in obese women with GDM can result in ketonemia and ketonuria. Insufficient data are available to determine how such diets affect perinatal outcomes.
Daily food records, weekly weight checks, and ketone testing can be used to determine individual energy requirements and whether a woman is undereating to avoid insulin therapy. Carbohydrate should be distributed throughout the day in three small- to moderate-sized meals and two to four snacks. An evening snack may be needed to prevent accelerated ketosis overnight.
Carbohydrate is generally less well tolerated at breakfast than at other meals. Regular physical activity can help lower fasting and postprandial plasma glucose concentrations and may be used as an adjunct to improve maternal glycemia. If insulin therapy is added to MNT, maintaining carbohydrate consistency at meals and snacks becomes a primary goal.
Although most women with GDM revert to normal glucose tolerance postpartum, they are at increased risk of GDM in subsequent pregnancies and type 2 diabetes later in life. Lifestyle modifications after pregnancy aimed at reducing weight and increasing physical activity are recommended, as they reduce the risk of subsequent diabetes 26 , Breast-feeding is recommended for infants of women with preexisting diabetes or GDM; however, successful lactation requires planning and coordination of care In most situations, breast-feeding mothers require less insulin because of the calories expended with nursing.
Lactating women have reported fluctuations in blood glucose related to nursing sessions, often requiring a snack containing carbohydrate before or during breast-feeding Obese older adults with diabetes may benefit from modest energy restriction and an increase in physical activity; energy requirement may be less than for a younger individual of a similar weight.
A daily multivitamin supplement may be appropriate, especially for those older adults with reduced energy intake. Physical activity is needed to attenuate loss of lean body mass that can occur with energy restriction.
Exercise training can significantly reduce the decline in maximal aerobic capacity that occurs with age, improve risk factors for atherosclerosis, slow the age-related decline in lean body mass, decrease central adiposity, and improve insulin sensitivity—all potentially beneficial for the older adult with diabetes 89 , However, exercise can also pose potential risks such as cardiac ischemia, musculoskeletal injuries, and hypoglycemia in patients treated with insulin or insulin secretagogues.
Reduction of protein intake to 0. MNT that favorably affects cardiovascular risk factors may also have a favorable effect on microvascular complications such as retinopathy and nephropathy. Progression of diabetes complications may be modified by improving glycemic control, lowering blood pressure, and, potentially, reducing protein intake.
In several studies of subjects with diabetes and microalbuminuria, urinary albumin excretion rate and decline in glomerular filtration were favorably influenced by reduction of protein intake to 0. Although reduction of protein intake to 0. In individuals with diabetes and macroalbuminuria, reducing protein from all sources to 0. Although several studies have explored the potential benefit of plant proteins in place of animal proteins and specific animal proteins in diabetic individuals with microalbuninuria, the data are inconclusive 1 , Observational data suggest that dyslipidemia may increase albumin excretion and the rate of progression of diabetic nephropathy Elevation of plasma cholesterol in both type 1 and 2 diabetic subjects and plasma triglycerides in type 2 diabetic subjects were predictors of the need for renal replacement therapy Whereas these observations do not confirm that MNT will affect diabetic nephropathy, MNT designed to reduce the risk for CVD may have favorable effects on microvascular complications of diabetes.
For patients with diabetes at risk for CVD, diets high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and nuts may reduce the risk. In normotensive and hypertensive individuals, a reduced sodium intake e. In most individuals, a modest amount of weight loss beneficially affects blood pressure. In the EDIC Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications study, the follow-up of the DCCT Diabetes Control and Complications Trial , intensive treatment of type 1 diabetic subjects during the DCCT study period improved glycemic control and significantly reduced the risk of the combined end point of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke Adjustment for A1C explained most of the treatment effect.
The risk reductions obtained with improved glycemia exceeded those that have been demonstrated for other interventions such as cholesterol and blood pressure reductions.
There are no large-scale randomized trials to guide MNT recommendations for CVD risk reduction in individuals with type 2 diabetes.
However, because CVD risk factors are similar in individuals with and without diabetes, benefits observed in nutrition studies in the general population are probably applicable to individuals with diabetes. The previous section on dietary fat addresses the need to reduce intake of saturated and trans fatty acids and cholesterol. Hypertension, which is predictive of progression of micro- as well as macrovascular complications of diabetes, can be prevented and managed with interventions including weight loss, physical activity, moderation of alcohol intake, and diets such as DASH Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension.
The DASH diet emphasized fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products; included whole grains, poultry, fish, and nuts; and was reduced in fats, red meat, sweets, and sugar-containing beverages 7 , , The effects of lifestyle interventions on hypertension appear to be additive.
Reduction in blood pressure in people with diabetes can occur with a modest amount of weight loss, although there is great variability in response 1 , 7. Regular aerobic physical activity, such as brisk walking, has an antihypertensive effect 7.
Although chronic excessive alcohol intake is associated with an increased risk of hypertension, light to moderate alcohol consumption is associated with reductions in blood pressure 7. Heart failure and peripheral vascular disease are common in individuals with diabetes, but little is known about the role of MNT in treating these complications. Alcohol intake is discouraged in patients at high risk for heart failure. Ingestion of 15—20 g glucose is the preferred treatment for hypoglycemia, although any form of carbohydrate that contains glucose may be used.
In individuals taking insulin or insulin secretagogues, changes in food intake, physical activity, and medication can contribute to the development of hypoglycemia. The acute glycemic response correlates better with the glucose content than with the carbohydrate content of the food 1. Although pure glucose may be the preferred treatment, any form of carbohydrate that contains glucose will raise blood glucose Adding protein to carbohydrate does not affect the glycemic response and does not prevent subsequent hypoglycemia.
Adding fat, however, may retard and then prolong the acute glycemic response. During hypoglycemia, gastric-emptying rates are twice as fast as during euglycemia and are similar for liquid and solid foods. During acute illnesses, insulin and oral glucose-lowering medications should be continued. During acute illnesses, testing of plasma glucose and ketones, drinking adequate amounts of fluids, and ingesting carbohydrate are all important. Acute illnesses can lead to the development of hyperglycemia and, in individuals with type 1 diabetes, ketoacidosis.
During acute illnesses, with the usual accompanying increases in counterregulatory hormones, the need for insulin and oral glucose-lowering medications continues and often is increased. In adults, ingestion of — g carbohydrate daily 45—50 g every 3—4 h should be sufficient to prevent starvation ketosis 1.
Establishing an interdisciplinary team, implementation of MNT, and timely diabetes-specific discharge planning improves the care of patients with diabetes during and after hospitalizations.
Hospitals should consider implementing a diabetes meal-planning system that provides consistency in the carbohydrate content of specific meals. Hyperglycemia in hospitalized patients is common and represents an important marker of poor clinical outcome and mortality in both patients with and without diabetes Optimizing glucose control in these patients is associated with better outcomes An interdisciplinary team is needed to integrate MNT into the overall management plan , Diabetes nutrition self-management education, although potentially initiated in the hospital, is usually best provided in an outpatient or home setting where the individual with diabetes is better able to focus on learning needs , There is no single meal planning system that is ideal for hospitalized patients.
However, it is suggested that hospitals consider implementing a consistent-carbohydrate diabetes meal-planning system , This systems uses meal plans without a specific calorie level but consistency in the carbohydrate content of meals. The carbohydrate contents of breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snacks may vary, but the day-to-day carbohydrate content of specific meals and snacks is kept constant , Special nutrition issues include liquid diets, surgical diets, catabolic illnesses, and enteral or parenteral nutrition , Liquids should not be sugar free.
Patients require carbohydrate and calories, and sugar-free liquids do not meet these nutritional needs. Care must be taken not to overfeed patients because this can exacerbate hyperglycemia.
After surgery, food intake should be initiated as quickly as possible. Progression from clear liquids to full liquids to solid foods should be completed as rapidly as tolerated. The imposition of dietary restrictions on elderly patients with diabetes in long-term care facilities is not warranted. Residents with diabetes should be served a regular menu, with consistency in the amount and timing of carbohydrate. An interdisciplinary team approach is necessary to integrate MNT for patients with diabetes into overall management.
In the institutionalized elderly, undernutrition is likely and caution should be exercised when prescribing weight loss diets. Although the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes in elderly nursing home residents is high, not all of such individuals require pharmacologic therapy , Older residents with diabetes in nursing homes tend to be underweight rather than overweight Low body weight has been associated with greater morbidity and mortality in this population , Experience has shown that residents eat better when they are given less restrictive diets , Specialized diabetic diets do not appear to be superior to standard diets in such settings , Meal plans such as no concentrated sweets, no sugar added, low sugar, and liberal diabetic diet also are no longer appropriate.
These diets do not reflect current diabetes nutrition recommendations and unnecessarily restrict sucrose. These types of diets are more likely in long-term care facilities than acute care. Making medication changes to control glucose, lipids, and blood pressure rather than implementing food restrictions can reduce the risk of iatrogenic malnutrition. The specific nutrition interventions recommended will depend on a variety of factors, including age, life expectancy, comorbidities, and patient preferences Major nutrition recommendations and interventions for diabetes are listed in Table 3.
Monitoring of metabolic parameters, including glucose, A1C, lipids, blood pressure, body weight, and renal function is essential to assess the need for changes in therapy and to ensure successful outcomes. Many aspects of MNT require additional research. Classification of overweight and obesity by BMI, waist circumference, and associated disease risk.
Mooradian, and Madelyn L. We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address. Skip to main content. Diabetes Care Jan; 31 Supplement 1: This article has a correction. Errata - August 01, Department of Agriculture Medical nutrition therapy MNT is important in preventing diabetes, managing existing diabetes, and preventing, or at least slowing, the rate of development of diabetes complications.
Goals of MNT that apply to individuals with diabetes Achieve and maintain Blood glucose levels in the normal range or as close to normal as is safely possible A lipid and lipoprotein profile that reduces the risk for vascular disease Blood pressure levels in the normal range or as close to normal as is safely possible To prevent, or at least slow, the rate of development of the chronic complications of diabetes by modifying nutrient intake and lifestyle To address individual nutrition needs, taking into account personal and cultural preferences and willingness to change To maintain the pleasure of eating by only limiting food choices when indicated by scientific evidence Goals of MNT that apply to specific situations For youth with type 1 diabetes, youth with type 2 diabetes, pregnant and lactating women, and older adults with diabetes, to meet the nutritional needs of these unique times in the life cycle.
B Nutrition counseling should be sensitive to the personal needs, willingness to change, and ability to make changes of the individual with pre-diabetes or diabetes. A For weight loss, either low-carbohydrate or low-fat calorie-restricted diets may be effective in the short term up to 1 year. A For patients on low-carbohydrate diets, monitor lipid profiles, renal function, and protein intake in those with nephropathy , and adjust hypoglycemic therapy as needed.
E Physical activity and behavior modification are important components of weight loss programs and are most helpful in maintenance of weight loss. B The importance of controlling body weight in reducing risks related to diabetes is of great importance.
A Individuals at high risk for type 2 diabetes should be encouraged to achieve the U. B There is not sufficient, consistent information to conclude that low—glycemic load diets reduce the risk for diabetes.
E Observational studies report that moderate alcohol intake may reduce the risk for diabetes, but the data do not support recommending alcohol consumption to individuals at risk of diabetes. B No nutrition recommendation can be made for preventing type 1 diabetes. E Although there are insufficient data at present to warrant any specific recommendations for prevention of type 2 diabetes in youth, it is reasonable to apply approaches demonstrated to be effective in adults, as long as nutritional needs for normal growth and development are maintained.
E The importance of preventing type 2 diabetes is highlighted by the substantial worldwide increase in the prevalence of diabetes in recent years. Diabetes in youth No nutrition recommendations can be made for the prevention of type 1 diabetes at this time 1. B Monitoring carbohydrate, whether by carbohydrate counting, exchanges, or experienced-based estimation remains a key strategy in achieving glycemic control. A The use of glycemic index and load may provide a modest additional benefit over that observed when total carbohydrate is considered alone.
B Sucrose-containing foods can be substituted for other carbohydrates in the meal plan or, if added to the meal plan, covered with insulin or other glucose-lowering medications. A As for the general population, people with diabetes are encouraged to consume a variety of fiber-containing foods.
B Sugar alcohols and nonnutritive sweeteners are safe when consumed within the daily intake levels established by the Food and Drug Administration FDA. A Control of blood glucose in an effort to achieve normal or near-normal levels is a primary goal of diabetes management. Amount and type of carbohydrate. A Intake of trans fat should be minimized. E Two or more servings of fish per week with the exception of commercially fried fish filets provide n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and are recommended.
B The primary goal with respect to dietary fat in individuals with diabetes is to limit saturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol intakes so as to reduce risk for CVD. E In individuals with type 2 diabetes, ingested protein can increase insulin response without increasing plasma glucose concentrations. A High-protein diets are not recommended as a method for weight loss at this time. Optimal mix of macronutrients Although numerous studies have attempted to identify the optimal mix of macronutrients for the diabetic diet, it is unlikely that one such combination of macronutrients exists.
Alcohol in diabetes management Recommendations If adults with diabetes choose to use alcohol, daily intake should be limited to a moderate amount one drink per day or less for women and two drinks per day or less for men. E To reduce risk of nocturnal hypoglycemia in individuals using insulin or insulin secretagogues, alcohol should be consumed with food. E In individuals with diabetes, moderate alcohol consumption when ingested alone has no acute effect on glucose and insulin concentrations but carbohydrate coingested with alcohol as in a mixed drink may raise blood glucose.
B Abstention from alcohol should be advised for people with a history of alcohol abuse or dependence, women during pregnancy, and people with medical problems such as liver disease, pancreatitis, advanced neuropathy, or severe hypertriglyceridemia. Micronutrients in diabetes management Recommendations There is no clear evidence of benefit from vitamin or mineral supplementation in people with diabetes compared with the general population who do not have underlying deficiencies.
A Routine supplementation with antioxidants, such as vitamins E and C and carotene, is not advised because of lack of evidence of efficacy and concern related to long-term safety. A Benefit from chromium supplementation in individuals with diabetes or obesity has not been clearly demonstrated and therefore can not be recommended. E Uncontrolled diabetes is often associated with micronutrient deficiencies Antioxidants in diabetes management.
Chromium, other minerals, and herbs in diabetes management. E Individuals using rapid-acting insulin by injection or an insulin pump should adjust the meal and snack insulin doses based on the carbohydrate content of the meals and snacks.
A For individuals using fixed daily insulin doses, carbohydrate intake on a day-to-day basis should be kept consistent with respect to time and amount. C For planned exercise, insulin doses can be adjusted. E The first nutrition priority for individuals requiring insulin therapy is to integrate an insulin regimen into their lifestyle.
Nutrition interventions for type 2 diabetes Recommendations Individuals with type 2 diabetes are encouraged to implement lifestyle modifications that reduce intakes of energy, saturated and trans fatty acids, cholesterol, and sodium and to increase physical activity in an effort to improve glycemia, dyslipidemia, and blood pressure. E Plasma glucose monitoring can be used to determine whether adjustments in foods and meals will be sufficient to achieve blood glucose goals or if medication s needs to be combined with MNT.
E Healthy lifestyle nutrition recommendations for the general public are also appropriate for individuals with type 2 diabetes. Nutrition interventions for pregnancy and lactation with diabetes Recommendations Adequate energy intake that provides appropriate weight gain is recommended during pregnancy.
E Ketonemia from ketoacidosis or starvation ketosis should be avoided. E Because GDM is a risk factor for subsequent type 2 diabetes, after delivery, lifestyle modifications aimed at reducing weight and increasing physical activity are recommended. A Prepregnancy MNT includes an individualized prenatal meal plan to optimize blood glucose control. Nutrition interventions for older adults with diabetes Recommendations Obese older adults with diabetes may benefit from modest energy restriction and an increase in physical activity; energy requirement may be less than for a younger individual of a similar weight.
E A daily multivitamin supplement may be appropriate, especially for those older adults with reduced energy intake. B MNT that favorably affects cardiovascular risk factors may also have a favorable effect on microvascular complications such as retinopathy and nephropathy.
C Progression of diabetes complications may be modified by improving glycemic control, lowering blood pressure, and, potentially, reducing protein intake.
B For patients with diabetes at risk for CVD, diets high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and nuts may reduce the risk. C In normotensive and hypertensive individuals, a reduced sodium intake e. A In most individuals, a modest amount of weight loss beneficially affects blood pressure. C In the EDIC Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications study, the follow-up of the DCCT Diabetes Control and Complications Trial , intensive treatment of type 1 diabetic subjects during the DCCT study period improved glycemic control and significantly reduced the risk of the combined end point of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke B In individuals taking insulin or insulin secretagogues, changes in food intake, physical activity, and medication can contribute to the development of hypoglycemia.
Acute illness Recommendations During acute illnesses, insulin and oral glucose-lowering medications should be continued. A During acute illnesses, testing of plasma glucose and ketones, drinking adequate amounts of fluids, and ingesting carbohydrate are all important.
B Acute illnesses can lead to the development of hyperglycemia and, in individuals with type 1 diabetes, ketoacidosis. Patients with diabetes in acute health care facilities Recommendations Establishing an interdisciplinary team, implementation of MNT, and timely diabetes-specific discharge planning improves the care of patients with diabetes during and after hospitalizations. E Hospitals should consider implementing a diabetes meal-planning system that provides consistency in the carbohydrate content of specific meals.
E Hyperglycemia in hospitalized patients is common and represents an important marker of poor clinical outcome and mortality in both patients with and without diabetes Patients with diabetes in long-term care facilities Recommendations The imposition of dietary restrictions on elderly patients with diabetes in long-term care facilities is not warranted.
C An interdisciplinary team approach is necessary to integrate MNT for patients with diabetes into overall management. B Although the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes in elderly nursing home residents is high, not all of such individuals require pharmacologic therapy , View inline View popup. Table 1— Nutrition and MNT. Table 2— Classification of overweight and obesity by BMI, waist circumference, and associated disease risk.
Table 3— Major nutrition recommendations and interventions. Footnotes Originally approved Evidence-based nutrition principles and recommendations for the treatment and prevention of diabetes and related complications.
Nutrition principles and recommendations in diabetes Position Statement. Diabetes Care 27 Suppl. The evidence for the effectiveness of medical nutrition therapy in diabetes management. How effective is medical nutrition therapy in diabetes care?