Livestock depredation has been one of the primary reasons for hunting wolves, and can pose a severe problem for wolf conservation: Gray wolves howl to assemble the pack usually before and after hunts , to pass on an alarm particularly at a den site , to locate each other during a storm or unfamiliar territory and to communicate across great distances. It feeds primarily on large ungulates , though it also eats smaller animals, livestock, carrion, and garbage. Thanks again, Robert www. You should receive an email from us shortly asking you to verify your email address. Smithsonian National Zoological Park. I didn't spend an inordinate time searching but after about twenty minutes it became reasonably clear that there was nothing remotely approaching the level of detail provided in your US zip code database by any of your competitors.
It is calorie-controlled, nutritionally balanced, and carefully controlled for sodium, carbs, fat, and cholesterol. It is suitable for omnivores and individuals who do not like seafood. With the Balance meal plan, you can eat between 1, and 1, calories per day. The meals available with this plan are designed to help you naturally control your blood sugar and shed pounds at the same time, with no health risks. The Keto-Carb30 plan is specifically designed for those who prefer Atkins-style, carb-restricted diets.
By replacing carbs with fat and offering a wide variety of meals based on meat, cheese, and eggs, it helps you lose weight quickly and effectively. With this plan, your daily carb intake is limited to just 30 net carbs on average, which makes it a perfect choice for individuals on the keto diet. On average, the meals included in the Carb30 plan have around 1, calories per day. The Vegetarian plan represents a meat-free version of the famous Balance plan. The meals included in this plan are heart-healthy, perfectly balanced, and portion-controlled.
They contain limited amounts of sodium, cholesterol, fats, and carbs. They are rich in nutrients and protein coming from healthy protein sources such as dairy, eggs, beans, and occasionally soy. All meals have a 7-day shelf life when properly refrigerated, but if you freeze them, you can extend it to 30 days.
Whether you need BBQ sauce or light mayo for your sandwichs, light cream cheese for your bagel or jam for a muffin, Diet-To-Go has you covered. Diet-To-Go enables you to customize not only your daily and weekly menus but lets you choose a pricing plan that best fits your budget.
There are many parameters that greatly influence your final weekly price. You can choose one of two delivery options. You can either get a once-per-week home delivery, which brings you your entire weekly menu in frozen form, or you can opt for the Fresh Local Pickup option on Tuesdays and Fridays. There are currently more than pickup locations in selected parts of the US.
As for the meal options, you can choose one of the 4 menus previously described in this Diet-To-Go review. When Tab was released in , the Coca-Cola Company refused to release a diet soda with the Coca-Cola name, fearing that its flagship brand might suffer. Its rival Pepsi had no such qualms, and after the long-term success of its sugar-free Diet Pepsi launched in became clear, Coca-Cola decided to launch a competing sugar-free brand under the Coca-Cola name, which could be marketed more easily than Tab.
Diet Coke does not use a modified form of the Coca-Cola recipe, but instead an entirely different formula. The controversial New Coke , introduced in , used a version of the Diet Coke recipe that contained high fructose corn syrup and had a slightly different balance of ingredients. Diet Coke was sweetened with aspartame , an artificial sweetener, after the sweetener became available in the United States in After Diet Rite cola advertised its percent use of aspartame, and the manufacturer of NutraSweet then G.
Diet Coke from fountain dispensers still contains some saccharin to extend shelf life. In , under pressure from retailer Walmart which was impressed with the popularity of Splenda sweetener [ citation needed ] , the company released a new formulation called "Diet Coke sweetened with Splenda".
Early sales were weaker than anticipated; however, Coca-Cola did little advertising for the brand, investing money and advertising in Coca-Cola Zero instead. By late , some distributors had stopped supplying Diet Coke sweetened with Splenda.
In , in an effort to be more appealing to millennials , Diet Coke began offering itself in a skinnier can but still in 12 fluid ounces , and introduced four new flavors. Diet Coke and Diet Pepsi have capitalized on the markets of people who require low sugar regimens, such as diabetics and people concerned with calorie intake.
In other countries in which cyclamates are not banned as they were in the US in   , Diet Coke or Coca-Cola light may be sweetened with a blend containing cyclamates, aspartame, and acesulfame potassium.
The most commonly distributed version of Diet Coke and the majority of beverages that contain artificial sweeteners relies on aspartame , which has been suggested to pose health concerns.
Coca-Cola has now released Diet Coke sweetened with sucralose under the brand name Splenda , although it is not as common. The sodium benzoate was found to break down mitochondrial DNA in living yeast cells. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
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Archived from the original PDF on June 10, When such foods are insufficient, they prey on lizards , snakes , frogs , rarely toads and large insects as available. In times of scarcity, wolves readily eat carrion , visiting cattle burial grounds and slaughter houses. In Eurasia, many gray wolf populations are forced to subsist largely on livestock and garbage in areas with dense human activity, though wild ungulates such as moose , red deer , roe deer and wild boar are still the most important food sources in Russia and the more mountainous regions of Eastern Europe.
Other prey species include reindeer , argali , mouflon , wisent , saiga , ibex , chamois , wild goats , fallow deer and musk deer. Animals preferred as prey by North American wolves include moose, white-tailed deer , elk , mule deer , bighorn sheep , Dall's sheep , American bison , muskox and caribou.
Wolves supplement their diet with fruit and vegetable matter. They willingly eat the berries of mountain ash , lily of the valley , bilberries , blueberries and cowberry. Other fruits include nightshade , apples and pears. They readily visit melon fields during the summer months. Gray wolves typically dominate other canid species in areas where they both occur. In North America, incidents of gray wolves killing coyotes are common, particularly in winter, when coyotes feed on wolf kills.
Wolves may attack coyote den sites, digging out and killing their pups, though rarely eating them. There are no records of coyotes killing wolves, though coyotes may chase wolves if they outnumber them. Brown bears typically dominate wolf packs in disputes over carcasses, while wolf packs mostly prevail against bears when defending their den sites. Both species kill each other's young.
Wolves eat the brown bears they kill, while brown bears seem to only eat young wolves. The majority of black bear encounters with wolves occur in the species' northern range, with no interactions being recorded in Mexico.
Wolves have been recorded on numerous occasions to actively seek out black bears in their dens and kill them without eating them. Unlike brown bears, black bears frequently lose against wolves in disputes over kills. Wolves may encounter striped hyenas in Israel, Central Asia and India, usually in disputes over carcasses. Striped hyenas feed extensively on wolf-killed carcasses in areas where the two species interact.
One-to-one, hyenas dominate wolves, and may prey on them,  but wolf packs can drive off single or outnumbered hyenas. Large wolf populations limit the numbers of small to medium-sized felines. Wolves encounter cougars along portions of the Rocky Mountains and adjacent mountain ranges. Wolves and cougars typically avoid encountering each other by hunting on different elevations. In winter, however, when snow accumulation forces their prey into valleys, interactions between the two species become more likely.
Wolves in packs usually dominate cougars and can steal kills. They have been reported killing mothers and their kittens. Wolves may kill lynxes by running them down, or killing them before they can escape into trees. Leftovers of wolf kills are sometimes scavenged by wolverines. Wolverines usually wait until the wolves are done feeding, but have been known to drive away wolves from kills. However, there have been confirmed reports of wolf packs killing wolverines.
Other than humans, tigers appear to be the only serious predators of wolves. Wolves appear capable of escaping competitive exclusion from tigers only when human persecution decreases tiger numbers.
Proven cases of tigers killing wolves are rare and attacks appear to be competitive rather than predatory in nature, with at least four proven records of tigers killing wolves without consuming them.
However, deliberate human persecution has reduced the species' range to about one third, because of livestock predation and fear of attacks on humans. Wolf population declines have been arrested since the s, and have fostered recolonization and reintroduction in parts of its former range, due to legal protection, changes in land-use and rural human population shifts to cities. Competition with humans for livestock and game species, concerns over the danger posed by wolves to people, and habitat fragmentation pose a continued threat to the species.
Despite these threats, because of the gray wolf's relatively widespread range and stable population, it is classified as least concern by the IUCN. Although wolf-dog hybridization in Europe has raised concern among conservation groups fearing for the gray wolf's purity, genetic tests show that introgression of dog genes into European gray wolf populations does not pose a significant threat.
Also, as wolf and dog mating seasons do not fully coincide, the likelihood of wild wolves and dogs mating and producing surviving offspring is small. The extermination of Northern Europe 's wolves first became an organized effort during the Middle Ages , and continued until the late 19th century.
In England , wolf persecution was enforced by legislation , and the last wolf was killed in the early sixteenth century during the reign of Henry VII. Wolves lasted longer in Scotland , where they sheltered in vast tracts of forest, which were subsequently burned down.
Wolves managed to survive in the forests of Braemar and Sutherland until The extirpation of wolves in Ireland followed a similar course, with the last wolf believed to have been killed in The Sami extirpated wolves in northern Sweden in organized drives. By , few wolves remained in Sweden, because of the use of snowmobiles in hunting them, with the last specimen being killed in The gray wolf was exterminated in Denmark in and Norway's last wolf was killed in The species was decimated in 20th century Finland, despite regular dispersals from Russia.
The gray wolf was only present in the eastern and northern parts of Finland by , though its numbers increased after World War II. In Central Europe , wolves were dramatically reduced in number during the early nineteenth century, because of organized hunts and reductions in ungulate populations.
In Bavaria , the last wolf was killed in , and had disappeared from the Rhine regions by Today, wolves have returned to the area. The louveterie was abolished after the French Revolution in , but was re-established in In , up to 1, wolves were killed, with many more by poison.
In Eastern Europe , wolves were never fully exterminated, because of the area's contiguity with Asia and its large forested areas. However, Eastern European wolf populations were reduced to very low numbers by the late nineteenth century.
Wolves were extirpated in Slovakia during the first decade of the twentieth century and, by the mid-twentieth century, could only be found in a few forested areas in eastern Poland. Wolves in the eastern Balkans benefitted from the region's contiguity with the former Soviet Union and large areas of plains, mountains and farmlands.
Wolves in Hungary occurred in only half the country around the start of the 20th century, and were largely restricted to the Carpathian Basin. Wolf populations in Romania remained largely substantial, with an average of 2, wolves being killed annually out of a population of 4, from — An all-time low was reached in , when the population was reduced to 1, animals.
The extermination of wolves in Bulgaria was relatively recent, as a previous population of about 1, animals in was reduced to about — in In Greece, the species disappeared from the southern Peloponnese in Despite periods of intense hunting during the eighteenth century, wolves never disappeared in the western Balkans, from Albania to the former Yugoslavia.
In Southern Europe , wolf extermination was not as complete as in Northern Europe, because of greater cultural tolerance of the species. Wolf populations only began declining in the Iberian Peninsula in the early 19th-century, and was reduced by a half of its original size by Wolf bounties were regularly paid in Italy as late as The recovery of European wolf populations began after the s, when traditional pastoral and rural economies declined and thus removed the need to heavily persecute wolves.
By the s, small and isolated wolf populations expanded in the wake of decreased human density in rural areas and the recovery of wild prey populations. The gray wolf has been fully protected in Italy since , and now holds a population of over 1,, By the wolves in the Western Alps imposed a significant burden on traditional sheep and goat husbandry with a loss of over 5, animals in In Spain , the species occurs in Galicia , Leon , and Asturias.
Although hundreds of Iberian wolves are illegally killed annually, the population has expanded south across the river Duero and east to the Asturias and Pyrenees Mountains.
In , wolves began recolonising central Sweden after a twelve-year absence, and have since expanded into southern Norway. As of , the total number of Swedish and Norwegian wolves is estimated to be at least one hundred, including eleven breeding pairs. The gray wolf is fully protected in Sweden and partially controlled in Norway.
The Scandinavian wolf populations owe their continued existence to neighbouring Finland's contiguity with the Republic of Karelia , which houses a large population of wolves.
Furthermore, the decline in the moose populations has reduced the wolf's food supply. Wolf populations in Poland have increased to about — individuals since being classified as a game species in Poland plays a fundamental role in providing routes of expansion into neighbouring Central European countries. In the east, its range overlaps with populations in Lithuania, Belarus , Ukraine , and Slovakia.
A population in western Poland expanded into eastern Germany and in the first pups were born on German territory. A few Slovakian wolves disperse into the Czech Republic, where they are afforded full protection. Wolves in Slovakia, Ukraine and Croatia may disperse into Hungary, where the lack of cover hinders the buildup of an autonomous population. Although wolves have special status in Hungary, they may be hunted with a year-round permit if they cause problems.
Romania has a large population of wolves, numbering 2, animals. The wolf has been a protected animal in Romania since , although the law is not enforced. The number of wolves in Albania and Macedonia is largely unknown, despite the importance the two countries have in linking wolf populations from Greece to those of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia.
Although protected, sometimes wolves are still illegally killed in Greece, and their future is uncertain. Wolf numbers have declined in Bosnia and Herzegovina since , while the species is fully protected in neighbouring Croatia and Slovenia.
During the 19th century, gray wolves were widespread in many parts of the Holy Land east and west of the Jordan River. However, they decreased considerably in number between and , largely because of persecution by farmers. Soviet wolf populations reached a low around , disappearing over much of European Russia. The population increased again by to about 75,, with 32, being killed in By the s, wolf extermination remained a priority in the NWP and Awadh.
Overall, over , wolves were killed for bounties in British India between and The wolf was deemed a threat to ranching, which the Meiji government promoted at the time, and targeted via a bounty system and a direct chemical extermination campaign inspired by the similar contemporary American campaign.
The last Japanese wolf was a male killed on January 23, near Washikaguchi now called Higashi Yoshiro. Japanese wolves likely underwent a process of island dwarfism 7,—13, years ago in response to these climatological and ecological pressures.
There is little reliable data on the status of wolves in the Middle East , save for those in Israel and Saudi Arabia , though their numbers appear to be stable, and are likely to remain so.
Israel's conservation policies and effective law enforcement maintain a moderately sized wolf population, which radiates into neighbouring countries, while Saudi Arabia has vast tracts of desert, where about — wolves live undisturbed. The mountains of Turkey have served as a refuge for the few wolves remaining in Syria. A small wolf population occurs in the Golan Heights , and is well protected by the military activities there.
Wolves living in the southern Negev desert are contiguous with populations living in the Egyptian Sinai and Jordan. Throughout the Middle East, the species is only protected in Israel. Elsewhere, it can be hunted year-round by Bedouins. Little is known of current wolf populations in Iran, which once occurred throughout the country in low densities during the mids.
The northern regions of Afghanistan and Pakistan are important strongholds for the wolf. Overall, India supports about , wolves, scattered among several remnant populations. Although protected since , Indian wolves are classed as endangered, with many populations lingering in low numbers or living in areas increasingly used by humans.
Although present in Nepal and Bhutan , there is no information of wolves occurring there. Wolf populations throughout Northern and Central Asia are largely unknown, but are estimated in the hundreds of thousands based on annual harvests. Since the fall of the Soviet Union , continent-wide extermination of wolves has ceased, and wolf populations have increased to about 25,—30, animals throughout the former Soviet Union.
In China and Mongolia , wolves are only protected in reserves. Mongolian populations have been estimated at 10,—30,, while the status of wolves in China is more fragmentary.
The north has a declining population of an estimated wolves, while Xinjiang and Tibet hold about 10, and 2, respectively. It exists in southern China, which refutes claims made by some researchers in the Western world that the wolf had never existed in southern China. It occurred all over the mainland, save for the southeastern United States, California west of the Sierra Nevada , and the tropical and subtropical areas of Mexico. Large continental islands occupied by wolves included Newfoundland , Vancouver Island , southeastern Alaskan islands, and throughout the Arctic Archipelago and Greenland.
In his November 6, letter to the French Minister of the Marine, Louis Denys de La Ronde reported that the island was home to wolves "of a prodigious size", and sent a wolf pelt back to France to substantiate his claim. As the island was cleared for settlement, the gray wolf population may have been extirpated, or relocated to the mainland across the winter ice: The decline of North American wolf populations coincided with increasing human populations and the expansion of agriculture.
By the start of the 20th century, the species had almost disappeared from the eastern USA, excepting some areas of the Appalachians and the northwestern Great Lakes Region.
In Canada, the gray wolf was extirpated in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia between and , and in Newfoundland around It vanished from the southern regions of Quebec and Ontario between and The gray wolf's decline in the prairies began with the extermination of the American bison and other ungulates in the s—70s. From —, the gray wolf was virtually eliminated from the western USA and adjoining parts of Canada, because of intensive predator control programs aimed at eradicating the species.
The gray wolf was exterminated by federal and state governments from all of the USA by , except in Alaska and northern Minnesota. The decline in North American wolf populations was reversed from the s to the early s, particularly in southwestern Canada, because of expanding ungulate populations resulting from improved regulation of big game hunting.
This increase triggered a resumption of wolf control in western and northern Canada. Thousands of wolves were killed from the early s to the early s, mostly by poisoning. This campaign was halted and wolf populations increased again by the mids. The species' modern range in North America is mostly confined to Alaska and Canada, with populations also occurring in northern Minnesota, northern Wisconsin and Michigan 's Upper Peninsula , and small portions of Washington , Idaho , northern Oregon , and Montana.
A functional wolf population should exist in California by according to estimates by state wildlife officials. In addition, the Mexican wolf Canis lupus baileyi was reintroduced to Arizona and New Mexico in Canada is home to about 52,—60, wolves, whose legal status varies according to province and territory.
First Nations residents may hunt wolves without restriction, and some provinces require licenses for residents to hunt wolves while others do not. In Alberta , wolves on private land may be baited and hunted by the landowner without requiring a license, and in some areas, wolf hunting bounty programs exist.
In Alaska, the gray wolf population is estimated at 6,—7,, and can be legally harvested during hunting and trapping seasons, with bag limits and other restrictions. As of , there are wolves in 28 packs in Yellowstone, and wolves in 25 packs in Idaho.
Reintroduced Mexican wolves in Arizona and New Mexico are protected under the ESA and, as of late , number 28 individuals in eight packs. Viral diseases carried by wolves include rabies , canine distemper , canine parvovirus , infectious canine hepatitis , papillomatosis , and canine coronavirus. Infected wolves do not show any fear of humans, with most documented wolf attacks on people being attributed to rabid animals.
Although canine distemper is lethal in dogs, it has not been recorded to kill wolves, except in Canada and Alaska. The canine parvovirus, which causes death by dehydration , electrolyte imbalance , and endotoxic shock or sepsis , is largely survivable in wolves, but can be lethal to pups.
Wolves may catch infectious canine hepatitis from dogs, though there are no records of wolves dying from it. Papillomatosis has been recorded only once in wolves, and likely doesn't cause serious illness or death, though it may alter feeding behaviors.
The canine coronavirus has been recorded in Alaskan wolves, with infections being most prevalent in winter months. Bacterial diseases carried by wolves include brucellosis , lyme disease , leptospirosis , tularemia , bovine tuberculosis ,  listeriosis , anthrax and foot and mouth disease. While adult wolves tend not to show any clinical signs, it can severely weaken the pups of infected females. Although lyme disease can debilitate individual wolves, it does not appear to have any significant effect on wolf populations.
Leptospirosis can be contracted through contact with infected prey or urine, and can cause fever , anorexia , vomiting, anemia , hematuria , icterus , and death. Wolves living near farms are more vulnerable to the disease than those living in the wilderness, probably because of prolonged contact with infected domestic animal waste. Wolves may catch tularemia from lagomorph prey, though its effect on wolves is unknown. Although bovine tuberculosis is not considered a major threat to wolves, it has been recorded to have once killed two wolf pups in Canada.
Wolves carry ectoparasites and endoparasites , with wolves in the former Soviet Union having been recorded to carry at least 50 species. In areas where wolves inhabit pastoral areas, the parasites can be spread to livestock.
Wolves are often infested with a variety of arthropod exoparasites, including fleas , ticks , lice , and mites. The most harmful to wolves, particularly pups, is Sarcoptes scabiei or mange mite ,  though they rarely develop full blown mange , unlike foxes.
Ticks of the genus Ixodes can infect wolves with Lyme disease and Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Other ectoparasites include biting lice, sucking lice and the fleas Pulex irritans and Ctenocephalides canis.
Endoparasites known to infect wolves include protozoans and helminths flukes , tapeworms , roundworms and thorny-headed worms. Of 30, protozoan species, only a few have been recorded to infect wolves: Isospora , Toxoplasma , Sarcocystis , Babesia , and Giardia.
Upon reaching maturity, Alaria migrates to the wolf's intestine, but harms it little. Metorchis conjunctus , which enters wolves through eating fish, infects the wolf's liver or gall bladder, causing liver disease , inflammation of the pancreas, and emaciation. Most other fluke species reside in the wolf's intestine, though Paragonimus westermani lives in the lungs.
Tapeworms are commonly found in wolves, as their primary hosts are ungulates, small mammals, and fish, which wolves feed upon. Tapeworms generally cause little harm in wolves, though this depends on the number and size of the parasites, and the sensitivity of the host.
Symptoms often include constipation , toxic and allergic reactions , irritation of the intestinal mucosa , and malnutrition. Infections by the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus in ungulate populations tend to increase in areas with high wolf densities, as wolves can shed Echinoccocus eggs in their feces onto grazing areas.
Wolves can carry over 30 roundworm species, though most roundworm infections appear benign, depending on the number of worms and the age of the host. Ancylostoma caninum attaches itself on the intestinal wall to feed on the host's blood, and can cause hyperchromic anemia , emaciation, diarrhea , and possibly death. Toxocara canis , a hookworm known to infect wolf pups in utero, can cause intestinal irritation, bloating, vomiting, and diarrhea. Wolves can tolerate low levels of Dirofilaria immitis for many years without showing any ill effects, though high levels can kill wolves through cardiac enlargement and congestive hepatopathy.
Wolves probably become infected with Trichinella spiralis by eating infected ungulates. Nicolla skrjabini , Macrocantorhynchus catulinus , and Moniliformis moniliformis.
Human presence appears to stress wolves, as seen by increased cortisol levels in instances such as snowmobiling near their territory. Old English literature contains several instances of Anglo-Saxon kings and warriors taking on wulf as a prefix or suffix in their names.
Wolf-related names were also common among pre-Christian Germanic warriors: Ancient Greek literature is similar: Autolycus "the wolf itself" , Lycurgus "wolf-work".
The Latin for "female prostitute" is lupa , and the most famous brothel in Pompeii was the Lupanar.