Thank you for your feedback. Urea is the end product of protein metabolism in mammals, and excretion is therefore called ureotelic. Introduction Microplastics are tiny pieces of plastics up to 5mm in size, anything bigger is considered a macroplastic. Animal studies show that DNA in food can travel into organs throughout the body, even into the fetus. If the antibiotic gene inserted into most GM crops were to transfer, it could create antibiotic-resistant diseases.
Form and function
I cook my chicken bone broth for about 4 hours at high pressure then 2 hrs at low in my electric pressure cooker. I use chicken wings which break down quicker than chicken feet. My broth is beautifully gelatinous when cooled. Will this high-pressure method avoid the glutamic acid problem? I really have no idea. We have not done any tests on pressure cooked bone broth so I cannot say. If I find out any info, I will surely post about it! Thank you for your message.
I do not know if the short cooked meat stock is low in histamines, but I would think it would be. I know GAPS can be hard with those with histamine intolerance, but there are ways to implement it low-histamine. I would be happy to talk with you about it. If you would like to, I offer a complementary conversation on my Wellness Consultations page, http: I am not clear about your question…who are you referring to? I do well on the meat broth and I really enjoy it.
I have watched some people on you tube cooking bone broth and then pressure canning it for there pantry is that ok ,,,,,,And they use it for anything calling for beef broth is that ok. Negatives can perhaps be related to food handling and not obtaining clean bones to use for broth. Food handling is crucial. Boiling to bring broth back up to a clean state is important after the broth has been refrigerated. Making sure the glass container used to store the broth is sterile is also something to be considered.
The devil is in the details! So my daughter had brain cancer in and I would assume I should not be giving her bone broth then? Is meat broth still healthy and if so are there benefits? If so can you tell me some of them? Would you suggest store bought, powdered collagen? Can you please provide the research that is the basis for your claims? When I mentioned it to two different doctors, one laughed and the other told me it was all in my head.
I know a ton of folks who are regularly drinking bone broth to actually heal the gut and have autoimmune issues. This is the staple food of the GAPS gut and psychology syndrome and I have never, ever heard of anything like this. Is there any data? Do you have a source for these adverse events? Is this really a thing? My wife drinks this daily and we used to drink it several times a day when we were doing very strict GAPS.
Yes, it is very important to bring bone broth back up to a boil after it has been refrigerated. Skim and discard any scum that rises to the top and then proceed with drinking or using in a recipe! Thank you for your message and question.
The study was done by Kim Schuette of Biodynamic Wellness. You can see the study here: The research about glutamic acid and its affect on brain function as an excitotoxin was done by Dr. Russell Blaylock, a board certified neurosurgeon years ago. The Taste that Kills. Thank you for your message! I understand your confusion! Natasha Campbell-McBride has read, approved, and endorses my book on Meat Stock and Bone Broth—what they are, how to make them, and when they are used. My hope is that my work will help to inform those CGPs that took the training prior, so that they can start letting their patients know about Meat Stock and its role in the Intro Diet, which, according to Dr.
Natasha, is where all the healing and sealing happens. Also, in terms of glutamic acid and its affect on brain function as a neurotoxin or excitotoxin, it comes from the work of Dr. Russell Blaylock, a board-certified neurosurgeon who wrote on the issue in his book: We found out about the high levels of glutamic acid when batches of chicken broth long cooked bone broth—24 hours and short cooked broth—was sent to a lab for amino acid analysis.
You can find the original study here: It is my understanding that meat stock is best when dealing with brain issues—remember that the issue with bone broth is that broth that is cooked long —24 hours or more—will be high in glutamic acid.
So, I would use short cooked meat stock for your daughter. Both bone broth and meat stock are chock full of benefits: Often, processed powders contain denatured molecules that can cause problems in the body.
I Googled this because I took powdered bone broth for about 2 months. It definitely helped my gut — I can even take aspirin now without hurting my stomach. However, I ended up having a mini stroke. Has anyone had anything like this? I have started using grass fed beef marrow bones in the instant pot under high pressure for 35 minutes. It makes the most amazing bone broth. I let it cool, strain, bottle and left the fat cap form which I remove in one piece.
It is delicious just the way it is, or for a soup base. A friend just sent me this post. I had my son on the GAPS diet when he started having seizures- I had come across something about glutamic acid and it being a neurotoxin.
I never could find out anything related to the use of stocks and broths, so this is enlightening. Also, I canned up some broth, which has to be at a real high temp. I was concerned about what that might do to the fat that is the stock, but now have concerns that the high heat used for canning also would increase the glutamic acid?
It would be great for you to add some meaty backs or a leg or two into your kits to make a meat stock. Then, bring it to a boil, skim and discard any scum, and put to a simmer with the lid on for about an hour and a half to 3 hours most.
This will make a really good—delicious and nutritious- meat stock, that is low in glutamic acid. For those who do not have a leaky gut, high glutamic acid will not be a problem. Hi Suzi, While bone broth does contain gelatin that will heal your gut, powdered bone broth is produced by long cooking, which is one of the reasons bone broth is high in glutamic acid. So yes, it is possible. And yes, some people who have had neurological symptoms from headaches and migraines to stimming and seizures have had them triggered by high glutamic acid.
If you would like to continue to heal your gut, try making meat stock, as that is what is recommended by Dr. I have also written a book on the subject to try and clear this all up! It is available on this site. Thank you for the link! My book and article are based on the Gut and Psychology Syndrome by Dr. Natasha Campbell-McBride and some lab analysis of short cooked and long cooked broth, which showed the high concentration of glutamic acid in long cooked bone broth.
Sally Fallon Morrell wrote her article in , and is writing to the general audience regarding its attributes, before we had this additional information, and, 16 years ago. Sally reviewed my book on Meat Stock, saying the following:. Do you have a lot of practical questions? This book will answer them all, and then some. If you need encouragement, advice, and inspiration, this is the place to start. So, are there any powdered bone broths that you can recommend? I found your article shared by Katie Kimball, Kitchen Stewardship.
She recommends using Vital Proteins collagen which has 2, mg glutamic acid per 18g of protein — about Why is my 10 month old grandson reacting to a teaspoon of chicken broth with reflux and a flare up of eczema? You must be logged in to post a comment. On the Bright Side—Meat Stock! Corn and Salmon Chowder with Bacon and Dill. September 6, at 3: September 7, at 5: September 7, at 7: September 7, at 9: September 7, at 1: September 9, at 2: October 14, at October 15, at Feel free to contact me with further questions.
Very useful, thanks Monica. October 15, at 1: Why not cook in a pressure pot shorter time faster with good result. October 17, at 2: October 19, at 2: October 22, at 5: Should bone broth be avoided for those with brain tumors or brain cancer? October 22, at October 23, at October 24, at October 26, at November 8, at 9: November 10, at December 4, at 5: December 8, at 6: December 8, at 3: If bone broth is giving you headaches, that is a signal that Meat Stock would be better for you.
Hi Mary, Thank you for your message. My best to you, Monica. December 9, at 2: January 2, at 7: Yes, that is a wonderful thing to do!! Just be careful to shield your eyes! January 12, at 5: January 16, at 1: February 8, at 5: February 16, at 5: No references to this claim?? February 16, at 7: February 16, at 8: Thanks for your question! No other type of calcium can be utilized by the body… Hope that helps! Thank you for the reminder! What is in the scum that is advisable to remove?
February 16, at February 16, at 1: February 16, at 3: February 17, at 7: February 17, at 8: February 17, at 9: Yes, all cooking does denature proteins. It is a question of how much. February 17, at 1: February 17, at 6: Susan Hornung Feinglass says: February 18, at I would love to hear how you are doing on meat broth. February 18, at 9: February 20, at 1: February 20, at 4: February 21, at 6: Wow, this really worked for my coworker, Peggy Sue.
February 22, at 1: So great to hear! February 22, at 3: I have heard of people canning their bone broth. They say it works well! February 23, at 1: What about cooking the bones in a pressure cooker? Not low, not slow and not long. February 23, at 5: Just scrolled down and saw someone already asked this!
February 24, at 2: February 24, at 7: February 25, at 7: February 25, at 8: February 26, at 8: February 28, at March 2, at 9: March 2, at Let me know if you have any other questions. I hope you will be trying Meat Stock to help heal your leaky gut! My best to you! March 21, at 4: May 7, at September 1, at 1: September 2, at 3: October 16, at 1: Thank you for your questions, and be well!
October 17, at Sally reviewed my book on Meat Stock, saying the following: Price Foundation Thank you again for your link, and be well! Demetra Mills Cordova says: Even though the primary function of the skin is defensive, it has been modified in mammals to serve such diverse functions as thermoregulation and nourishment of young.
Secretions of sweat glands promote cooling due to evaporation at the surface of the body, and mammary glands are a type of apocrine gland that is, a sweat gland associated with hair follicles; see also sweat glands. In certain groups primates in particular the skin of the face is under intricate muscular control, and movements of the skin express and communicate emotion. In many mammals the colour and pattern of the pelage are important in communicative behaviour.
Patterns may be startling dymantic , as seen in the mane of the male lion or hamadryas baboon , warning sematic , as seen in the bold pattern of skunks , or concealing cryptic , perhaps the most common adaptation of pelage colour.
Hair has been secondarily lost or considerably reduced in some kinds of mammals. In adult cetaceans insulation is provided by thick subcutaneous fat deposits, or blubber, with hair limited to a few stiff vibrissae about the mouth.
The bare skin is one of a number of features that contribute to the remarkably advanced hydrodynamics of locomotion in the group. Some burrowing fossorial mammals also tend toward reduction of the hair. This is shown most strikingly by the sand rats of northeastern Africa , but considerable loss of hair has also occurred in some species of pocket gophers.
Hair may also be lost on restricted areas of the skin, as from the face in many monkeys or the buttocks of mandrills , and may be sparse on elephants and such highly modified species as pangolins and armadillos. Continuous growth of hair indeterminate , as seen on the heads of humans, is rare among mammals. Hairs with determinate growth are subject to wear and must be replaced periodically—a process termed molt. The first coat of a young mammal is referred to as the juvenal pelage, which typically is of fine texture like the underfur of adults and is replaced by a postjuvenile molt.
Juvenal pelage is succeeded either directly by adult pelage or by the subadult pelage, which in some species is not markedly distinct from that of the adult. Once this pelage has been acquired, molting continues to recur at intervals, often annually or semiannually and sometimes more frequently.
The pattern of molt typically is orderly, but it varies widely between species. Some mammals apparently molt continuously, with a few hairs at a time replaced throughout the year. Specialization in food habits has led to profound dental changes. The primitive mammalian tooth had high, sharp cusps and served to tear flesh or crush chitinous material primarily the exoskeletons of terrestrial arthropods , such as insects. Herbivores tend to have specialized cheek teeth with complex patterns of contact occlusion and various ways of expanding the crowns of the teeth and circumventing the problem of wear.
Omnivorous mammals, such as bears, pigs, and humans, tend to have molars with low, rounded cusps, termed bunodont. Trends frequently associated with myrmecophagy include strong claws, an elongate rounded skull , a wormlike extensible tongue, marked reduction in the mandible lower jaw , and loss or extreme simplification of the teeth dentition. This habit has led to remarkably similar morphology among animals as diverse as the echidna a monotreme , the numbat a marsupial , the anteater a xenarthran , the aardvark a tubulidentate , and the pangolin a pholidotan.
Specialized herbivores evolved early in mammalian history. The extinct multituberculates were the earliest mammalian herbivores and have the longest evolutionary history, lasting more than million years from million to 50 million years ago.
Multituberculate fossils, such as those of Ptilodus , dated to the Paleocene Epoch 66—56 million years ago of North America , have been found on all continents. Similarities in teeth not due to common ancestry have occurred widely in herbivorous groups. Most herbivores have incisors modified for nipping or gnawing, have lost teeth with the resultant development of a gap diastema in the tooth row, and exhibit some molarization expansion and flattening of premolars to expand the grinding surface of the cheek teeth.
Rootless incisors or cheek teeth have evolved frequently, their open pulp cavity allowing continual growth throughout life.
Herbivorous specializations have evolved independently in multituberculates, rodents, lagomorphs, primates, and the wide diversity of ungulate and subungulate orders. The mammalian skeletal system shows a number of advances over that of lower vertebrates. The mode of ossification bone formation of the long bones is characteristic.
In lower vertebrates each long bone has a single centre of ossification the diaphysis , and replacement of cartilage by bone proceeds from the centre toward the ends, which may remain cartilaginous, even in adults. In mammals secondary centres of ossification the epiphyses develop at the ends of the bones. Growth of bones occurs in zones of cartilage between diaphysis and epiphyses. Mammalian skeletal growth is termed determinate, for once the actively growing zone of cartilage has been obliterated, growth in length ceases.
As in all bony vertebrates, of course, there is continual renewal of bone throughout life. The advantage of epiphyseal ossification lies in the fact that the bones have strong articular joint-related surfaces before the skeleton is mature.
In general, the skeleton of the adult mammal has less structural cartilage than does that of a reptile. The skeletal system of mammals and other vertebrates is broadly divisible functionally into axial and appendicular portions. The axial skeleton consists of the braincase cranium and the backbone and ribs , and it serves primarily to protect the central nervous system.
The limbs and their girdles constitute the appendicular skeleton. In addition, there are skeletal elements derived from the gill arches of primitive vertebrates , collectively termed the visceral skeleton. Visceral elements in the mammalian skeleton include the jaws , the hyoid apparatus supporting the tongue, and the auditory ossicles of the middle ear.
The postcranial axial skeleton in mammals generally has remained rather conservative during the course of evolution. The vast majority of mammals have seven cervical neck vertebrae; exceptions are sloths , with six or nine cervicals, and the sirenians with six. The anterior two cervical vertebrae are differentiated as atlas and axis. Specialized articulations of these two bones allow complex movements of the head on the trunk. Thoracic vertebrae bear ribs and are variable in number.
Posterior to the thoracic region are the lumbar vertebrae, ranging from 2 to 21 in number most frequently 4 to 7. Mammals have no lumbar ribs. There are usually 3 to 5 sacral vertebrae, but some xenarthrans have as many as Sacral vertebrae fuse to form the sacrum , to which the pelvic girdle is attached.
Caudal tail vertebrae range in number from 5 fused elements of the human coccyx [or tailbone] to See also vertebral column. The basic structure of the vertebral column is comparable throughout the Mammalia, although in many instances modifications have occurred in specialized locomotor modes to gain particular mechanical advantages.
The vertebral column and associated muscles of many mammals are structurally analogous to a cantilever girder. The skull is composite in origin and complex in function. Functionally the bones of the head are separable into the braincase and the jaws. In general, it is the head of the animal that meets the environment. The skull protects the brain and sense capsules the parts of the skeleton that facilitate the senses of sight, hearing, taste, and smell , houses the teeth and tongue , and contains the entrance to the pharynx.
Thus, the head functions in sensory reception , food acquisition, defense, respiration, and in higher groups communication. To serve these functions, bony elements have been recruited from the visceral skeleton, the endochondral skeleton the parts of the skeleton that form from cartilage , and the dermal skeleton of lower vertebrates. The skull of mammals differs markedly from that of reptiles because of the great expansion of the brain. The sphenoid bones that form the reptilian braincase form only the floor of the braincase in mammals.
The side is formed in part by the alisphenoid bone, derived from the epipterygoid, a part of the reptilian palate. Dermal elements, the frontals and parietals, have come to lie deep to beneath the muscles of the jaw to form the dorsum of the braincase.
Reptilian dermal roofing bones, lying superficial to the muscles of the jaw, are represented in mammals only by the jugal bone of the zygomatic arch , which lies under the eye. In mammals a secondary palate is formed by processes of the maxillary bones and the palatines, with the pterygoid bones reduced in importance. The secondary palate separates the nasal passages from the oral cavity and allows continuous breathing while chewing or suckling.
Other specializations of the mammalian skull include paired articulating surfaces at the neck occipital condyles and an expanded nasal chamber with complexly folded turbinal bones, providing a large area for detection of odours. Eutherians have evolved bony protection for the middle ear , the auditory bulla. The development of this structure varies, although a ring-shaped annular tympanic bone is always present. The bones of the mammalian middle ear are a diagnostic feature of the class.
The three auditory ossicles form a series of levers that serve mechanically to increase the amplitude of sound waves reaching the tympanic membrane , or eardrum, produced as disturbances of the air. The stapes is homologous with the entire stapedial structure of reptiles , which in turn was derived from the hyomandibular arch of primitive vertebrates.
The incus was derived from the quadrate bone, which is involved in the jaw articulation in reptiles. The malleus is the homologue of the reptilian articular bone. The mechanical efficiency of the middle ear has thus been increased by the incorporation of two bones of the reptilian jaw assemblage.
In mammals the lower jaw is a single bone, the dentary, which articulates with the squamosal of the skull. The limbs and girdles have been greatly modified with locomotor adaptations. The ancestral mammal had well-developed limbs and was five-toed. In each limb there were two distal outer elements radius and ulna in the forelimb; tibia and fibula in the hind limb and a single proximal inner or upper element humerus ; femur. There were nine bones in the wrist, the carpals , and seven bones in the ankle, the tarsals.
The phalangeal formula the number of phalangeal bones in each digit, numbered from inside outward is in primitive mammals; in primitive reptiles it is Modifications in mammalian limbs have involved reduction, loss, or fusion of bones. Loss of the clavicle from the shoulder girdle, reduction in the number of toes, and modifications of tarsal and carpal bones are typical correlates of cursorial locomotion.
Scansorial and arboreal groups tend to maintain or emphasize the primitive divergence of the thumb and hallux the inner toe on the hind foot. Centres of ossification sometimes develop in nonbony connective tissue.
Such bones are termed heterotopic or sesamoid elements. The kneecap patella is such a bone. Another important bone of this sort, found in many kinds of mammals, is the baculum , or os penis, which occurs as a stiffening rod in the penis of such groups as carnivores , many bats, rodents, some insectivores , and many primates.
The os clitoridis is a homologous structure found in females. The muscular system of mammals is generally comparable to that of reptiles. With changes in locomotion, the proportions and specific functions of muscular elements have been altered, but the relationships of these muscles remain essentially the same. Exceptions to this generalization are the muscles of the skin and of the jaw. The panniculus carnosus is a sheath of dermal skin muscle, developed in many mammals, that allows the movement of the skin independent of the movement of deeper muscle masses.
These movements function in such mundane activities as the twitching of the skin to foil insect pests and in some species also are important in shivering, a characteristic heat-producing response to thermal stress. The dermal musculature of the facial region is particularly well developed in primates and carnivores but occurs in other groups as well.
Facial mobility allows expression that may be of importance in the behavioral maintenance of interspecific social structure. The temporalis muscle is the major adductor closer of the reptilian jaw. In mammals the temporalis is divided into a deep temporalis proper and a more superficial masseter muscle.
The temporalis attaches to the coronoid process of the mandible lower jaw and the temporal bone of the skull. The masseter passes from the angular process of the mandible to the zygomatic arch. The masseter allows an anteroposterior forward-backward movement of the jaw and is highly developed in mammals, such as rodents , for which grinding is the important function of the dentition.
The alimentary canal is highly specialized in many kinds of mammals. In general, specializations of the gut accompany herbivorous habits.
The intestines of herbivores are typically elongate, and the stomach may also be specialized. Subdivision of the gut allows areas of differing physiological environments for the activities of different sorts of enzymes and symbiotic bacteria , which aid the animal by breaking down certain compounds that are otherwise undigestible. In ruminant artiodactyls , such as antelopes , deer , and cattle , the stomach has up to four chambers, each with a particular function in the processing of vegetable material.
A cecum is common in many herbivores. The cecum is a blind sac at the far end of the small intestine where complex compounds such as cellulose are acted upon by symbiotic bacteria.
The vermiform appendix is a diverticulum of the cecum. The appendix is rich in lymphoid tissue and in many mammals is concerned with defense against toxic bacterial products. These pellets are eaten and passed through the alimentary canal a second time. Where known to be present, this pattern seems to be obligatory.
Reingestion primarily occurs in members of the shrew , rodent , and rabbit groups; however, the behaviour has been observed to a lesser degree in other groups, including canines and pikas. The process appears to allow the animal to absorb in the upper gut vitamins produced by the microflora of the lower gut but not absorbable there. The mammalian kidney is constructed of a large number of functional units called nephrons.
Each nephron consists of a distal tubule, a medial section termed the loop of Henle , a proximal tubule, and a renal corpuscle. The renal corpuscle is a pressure filter, relying on blood pressure to remove water , ions, and small organic molecules from the blood. Some of the material removed is waste, but some is of value to the organism. The filtrate is sorted by the tubules, and water and needed solutes are resorbed. Resorption is both passive osmotic and active based on ion transport systems.
The distal convoluted tubules drain into collecting tubules, which in turn empty into the calyces, or branches, of the renal pelvis , the expanded end of the ureter. The pressure-pump nephron of mammals is so efficient that the renal portal system of lower vertebrates has been completely lost.
Mammalian kidneys show considerable variety in structure, relative to the environmental demands on a given species. In particular, desert rodents have long loops of Henle and are able to resorb much water and to excrete a highly concentrated urine.
Urea is the end product of protein metabolism in mammals, and excretion is therefore called ureotelic.
The testes of mammals descend from the abdominal cavity to lie in a compartmented pouch termed the scrotum. In some species the testes are permanently scrotal, and the scrotum is sealed off from the general abdominal cavity. In other species the testes migrate to the scrotum only during the breeding season. It is thought that the temperature of the abdominal cavity is too high to allow spermatogenesis ; the scrotum allows cooling of the testes.
The transport of spermatozoa is comparable to that in reptiles, relying on ducts derived from urinary ducts of earlier vertebrates. Each of these glands adds secretions to the spermatozoa to form semen , which passes from the body via a canal urethra in the highly vascular, erectile penis.
The tip of the penis, the glans, may have a complex morphology and has been used as a taxonomic character in some groups. The penis may be retracted into a sheath along the abdomen or may be pendulous, as in bats and many primates. The structure of the female reproductive tract is variable. Four types of uterus are generally recognized among placentals, based on the relationship of the uterine horns branches.