What is carboplatin?
The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own personal medication records. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was lower after dark chocolate ingestion. You may get an infection or bleed more easily. Cacahuatl cacao beans, resembling almonds, have been used as currency. Print this page Add to My Med List. Pregnancy Category Not classified. You should not receive carboplatin if you have severe bleeding or bone marrow suppression.
Carboplatin is injected into a vein through an IV. You will receive this injection in a clinic or hospital setting. You may be given other medications to prevent nausea or vomiting while you are receiving carboplatin.
This can make it easier for you to bleed from an injury or get sick from being around others who are ill. Your blood may need to be tested often. Your kidney and liver function may also need to be tested. Avoid being near people who are sick or have infections. Tell your doctor at once if you develop signs of infection. Carboplatin can cause side effects that may impair your vision.
Be careful if you drive or do anything that requires you to be able to see clearly. For at least 48 hours after you receive a dose, avoid allowing your body fluids to come into contact with your hands or other surfaces. Caregivers should wear rubber gloves while cleaning up a patient's body fluids, handling contaminated trash or laundry or changing diapers. Wash hands before and after removing gloves.
Wash soiled clothing and linens separately from other laundry. Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction: This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. Side effects in more detail. Carboplatin can harm your kidneys. This effect is increased when you also use certain other medicines, including: This list is not complete.
Other drugs may interact with carboplatin, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins , and herbal products. Not all possible interactions are listed in this medication guide. Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.
Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances. Ovarian Cancer Avastin , Lynparza , cisplatin , cyclophosphamide , Taxol , paclitaxel , doxorubicin , bevacizumab , More Cancer fluorouracil , cyclophosphamide , doxorubicin , Cytoxan , vincristine , etoposide , Adriamycin , topotecan , More Cervical Cancer Avastin , fluorouracil , Keytruda , cisplatin , bevacizumab , pembrolizumab , topotecan , ifosfamide , More No specific dosing recommendations can be made.
Further studies characterizing the polyphenol content of cocoa products and method of measurement are needed. Generally recognized as safe GRAS when used in moderate amounts or in amounts used in foods. Avoid dosages greater than those found in food because safety and efficacy are unproven. Caffeine content should be restricted during pregnancy. Children consuming large amounts of chocolate and caffeinated beverages may exhibit tics or restlessness. Ingredients in chocolate may precipitate migraine headaches, and cocoa products may be allergenic.
The cocoa tree grows to heights exceeding 8 m. The fruits are borne on the trunk and branches, with the seeds imbedded in a sticky pulp. The fruits are large and football shaped, with quarter-sized seeds referred to as cocoa beans. Cacao is often used to describe the raw material, while cocoa is used to describe the processed products.
The Olmecs, one of the first civilizations of the Americas 1, BC to BC are credited with the first use of cocoa. Cortez described the preparation and use of a beverage called chocalatl, made of the seeds of T.
Recipes using cacao were recorded in 15th century Mayan codices. Cacahuatl cacao beans, resembling almonds, have been used as currency. In Aztec society, cocoa beans were used to pay annual taxes to the Emperor. The medicinal use of chocolate has a long history in North America dating to the 16th century. At that time, physicians also stated that all that was necessary for breakfast was chocolate, because it yielded good nourishment for the body. Documents have been discovered indicating that chocolate was used naturopathically and prescribed to patients by some physicians for a variety of diseases during the 18th and 19th century in America, including cholera, consumption tuberculosis , scarlet fever, smallpox, typhus, and yellow fever.
During the 20th century especially after the s , the consumption of chocolate shifted from medicinal to confectionery. Specially treated cocoa powder, called alkalinized cocoa has improved color, flavor, and dispersability compared with unalkalinized powder. Cocoa butter, also known as theobroma oil, may have a faint chocolate odor that can be removed following further purification.
Cocoa contains more than volatile compounds, the most important flavor components being aliphatic esters, polyphenols, aromatic carbonyls, and theobromine, 10 which also prevent rancidity of the fat. The pharmacologically active ingredients of cocoa seeds include amines, alkaloids, fatty acids, polyphenols including flavonoids , tyramine, magnesium, phenylethylamine, and N-acylethanolamines.
Cocoa contains the amines and alkaloids theobromine 0. Theobromine is produced commercially from cocoa husks. Cocoa is rich in polyphenols that have beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease.
Flavanols can be monomeric: These polymers are known as procyanidins. N-acylethanolamines are compounds found in chocolate that are structurally similar to anandamine, which is similar to the cannabinoid responsible for euphoria from cannabis.
Cocoa has been reported to be a source of natural antioxidants, 10 the free radical scavengers that preserve cell membranes, protect DNA, prevent the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein LDL cholesterol that leads to atherosclerosis, and prevent plaque formation in arterial walls.
Although, the relatively high stearic acid content in cocoa products was once purported to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease CHD , it is no longer considered to play a role in the reduction of CHD risk. Research suggests that the flavonoid constituents, in particular flavanols, in cocoa may be beneficial in cardiovascular disease.
Consumption of foods rich in flavanols are also associated with improved cardiovascular outcomes, 5 , 40 suggesting that this specific group of flavonoids may have potent cardioprotective qualities.
Multiple epidemiological studies have found an inverse association between the consumption of flavonoid-containing foods and the risk of cardiovascular disease. In a study of elderly men, blood pressure was measured at baseline and then 5 years later, with causes of death ascertained during 15 years of follow-up.
The mean systolic blood pressure in the highest tertile of cocoa intake was 3. When compared with that of the lowest tertile, the adjusted relative risk for men in the highest tertile was 0. In another study, 4 34, cardiovascular disease-free postmenopausal women were followed for 16 years.
After multivariate analysis, a borderline inverse relationship between chocolate intake and cardiovascular disease mortality was observed. Numerous intervention trials have shown that consumption of flavanol-containing cocoa products can improve endothelial function, 41 , 43 , 44 , 45 , 46 vascular function, 44 , 47 , 48 and insulin sensitivity 47 ; as well as attenuate platelet reactivity 46 , 47 , 49 , 50 , 51 , 52 and reduce blood pressure.
Populations that consume cocoa routinely excrete more nitric oxide NO metabolites than genetically similar groups with less consumption.
This indicator of higher NO production is associated with a lower incidence of cardiovascular disease. Results of another study demonstrated that daily consumption of a high-flavanol cocoa drink led to a sustained reversal of endothelial dysfunction, reaching a plateau level of improved flow-mediated dilation after 5 days. Increases observed in circulating nitrite, but not in circulating nitrate, paralleled the observed flow-mediated dilation augmentation.
In a study of smokers, the ingestion of a flavanol-rich cocoa drink increased the circulating pool of nitric oxide and endothelium-dependent vasodilation. A study comparing the effects of dark and white chocolate on flow-mediated dilation found that dark chocolate improved flow-mediated dilation after 2 hours compared with baseline, with the effect lasting about 8 hours.
White chocolate had no effect on flow-mediated dilation. In the previous study, 2 hours after ingestion of dark chocolate, the shear stress-dependent platelet function was also reduced.
No effect was seen with white chocolate. In a study evaluating the effect of cocoa ingestion on modulated human platelet activation and primary hemostasis, cocoa consumption suppressed ADP- or epinephrine-stimulated platelet activation and platelet microparticle formation, and had an aspirin-like effect on primary hemostasis. Findings were similar in another study of 32 healthy subjects who consumed mg of cocoa flavanols and procyanidins or placebo per day for 28 days.
The active group had lower P-selectin expression and lower ADP-induced aggregation and collagen-induced aggregation than did the placebo group. In a crossover study, 15 healthy subjects were randomly assigned to consume g of dark chocolate or 90 g of white chocolate for 15 days after a 7-day, cocoa-free, run-in phase. They were then crossed over after another 7-day, cocoa-free, period.
The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was lower after dark chocolate ingestion. The quantitative insulin sensitivity check index was also higher after dark chocolate ingestion.